Dating Methods and Chronological Studies - Materials

                                        (not a comprehensive list)

 

Sedimentary

Mineral

Manufactures

Organic

Extraterrestrial

 

Sedimentary

alkaline halides - Rb-Sr dating

alluvial deposits - 26Al dating, allostratigraphy, infrared stimulated luminescence, uranium/thorium dating

alluvial fans - 10Be/9Be dating, 36Cl dating, cosmogenic dating, infrared stimulated luminescence

archaeological site sediments - optically stimulated luminescence

biogenic silica - oxygen isotope record

biostratigraphically barren strata - fission track dating, geochemical dating, Sm-Nd dating

buried podsols - optically stimulated luminescence

buried soils – pedostratigraphy

calcium carbonate in limestone - electron spin resonance

calcrete - thermoluminescence, uranium/thorium dating

caliche - radiocarbon dating, uranium/thorium dating

carbonates - carbon-isotope analysis, cyclostratigraphy, oxygen isotope record, paleoclimatology,

  radiocarbon dating, stable isotope analysis, strontium isotope stratigraphy, uranium/thorium dating,

  uranium/thorium dating

carbonized organic matter - oxidizable carbon ratio

clays - cyclostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, optically stimulated luminescence, paleomagnetic dating,

  potassium-argon dating, uranium/thorium dating, varve chronology, archaeometry

colluvia - optically stimulated luminescence

debris flows - cosmogenic dating

deep sea sediments - oxygen isotope record

desert pavements - cosmogenic dating, oxidizable carbon ratio

detrital sediments - radiocarbon dating, U/Pb dating, (U-Th)/He dating

dust - cyclostratigraphy

evaporites - K-Ca dating, uranium/thorium dating

fimic anthrosol - optically stimulated luminescence

faults - cosmogenic dating, infrared stimulated luminescence

feldspar rich sediments - optically stimulated luminescence

ferruginous concretions - uranium/thorium dating

flood deposits - optically stimulated luminescence

floodplain deposits - 210Pb dating

flow deposits - geochemical dating

fluvial sediments - uranium/thorium dating, 238U-230Th-226Ra dating

flysch - U/Pb dating

freshwater muds - diatom-zone dating

geosols - pedostratigraphy

glacial deposits - allostratigraphy, deglaciation chronology, oxidizable carbon ratio

glaciofluvial sediments - optically stimulated luminescence

gravel - lithostratigraphy

gyttja - oxygen isotope record, palynology, radiocarbon dating

hardgrounds - sequence stratigraphy

hillslope deposits - cosmogenic dating

ice - 26Al dating, argon-39 dating, 10Be/9Be dating, 36Cl dating, Dansgaard-Oeschger Events,

  ice core dating, ice flow models

ice cores - Heinrich events, ice core dating, oxygen isotope record, paleoclimatology, radiocarbon dating,

  stable isotope analysis

ice-rafted debris - Bond events, Heinrich events

illitic clays - Rb-Sr dating

intervolcanic sediments - radiolarian zone dating, tephrochronology

iron sulphides - paleomagnetic dating

lacustrine calcareous deposits - oxygen isotope record

lacustrine diatomites - 10Be/9Be dating

lake sediments - allostratigraphy, 137Cs dating, Dansgaard-Oeschger Events, diatom-zone dating,

  event stratigraphy, infrared stimulated luminescence, lake sediment successions, paleoecology,

  paleoenvironmental reconstruction, paleolimnology, 210Pb dating, radiocarbon dating,

  sedimentation rate chronology, uranium/thorium dating, varve chronology, stable isotope analysis

lignite - uranium/thorium dating

loess deposits- aeolian geomorphology, 10Be/9Be dating, event stratigraphy, infrared stimulated luminescence,

  loess-chronometry, optically stimulated luminescence, paleomagnetic dating, paleothermometry,

  210Pb dating, thermoluminescence, paleoclimatology, paleoprecipitation records, radiocarbon dating

marine muds - diatom-zone dating

marine phosphorites - 231Pa/230Th ratio

marine sediments - 26Al dating, alkenone analysis, ammonite-zone dating, benthic isotope stratigraphies,

  conodont-zone dating, Dansgaard-Oeschger Events, diatom-zone dating, dinoflagellate-zone dating,

  event stratigraphy, fusulinid-zone dating, gamma ray attenuation density, graptolite-zone dating,

  Heinrich events, infrared stimulated luminescence, magnetobiostratigraphy, magneto(cyclo)stratigraphy,

  marine isotope stage, nannofossil zone dating, oxygen isotope record, 231Pa/230Th ratio,

  paleothermometry, 210Pb dating, sapropel chonology, seafloor spreading rates, sedimentation rate chronology,

  stable isotope analysis, uranium/thorium dating, varve chronology, 32Si dating

marl - radiocarbon dating, stable isotope analysis

marsh deposits - sedimentation rate chronology

moraines - cosmogenic dating, deglaciation chronology, 10Be/9Be dating

nitrates - isotopic tracing

non-marine facies - palynology

organic carbon - geochemical dating

organic-rich sediments - optically stimulated luminescence

paleosols - oxidizable carbon ratio, paleosol analysis

phosphorites - uranium/thorium dating, 231Pa/230Th ratio

pumice - argon-40/argon-39 dating, electron spin resonance, uranium/thorium dating,

  238U-230Th-226Ra dating

quartz rich sediments - optically stimulated luminescence

red beds - fission track dating

rock strata - chronostratigraphy, climatostratigraphy, cross-dating, differential weathering, geochemical dating,

  geochronology, isotope geochemistry

samples found near igneous events - paleomagnetic dating

sand dunes - aeolian geomorphology, infrared stimulated luminescence, optically stimulated luminescence

sands - infrared stimulated luminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence,

  varve chronology

sandstone - U/Pb dating

sapropels - alkenone analysis, cyclostratigraphy, gamma ray attenuation density, magnetostratigraphy,

  stable isotope analysis

sediments - aeolian geomorphology, 26Al dating, amino acid racemization, argon-40/argon-39 dating,

  7Be dating, 10Be/9Be dating, biochronology, biostratigraphy, biozones, 137Cs dating,

  chemostratigraphy, 36Cl dating, cyclostratigraphy, detrital thermochronometry, diatom-zone dating,

  electron spin resonance, foraminifera-zone dating, fossil assemblages, geomorphology,

  global climatic events, helium-lead dating, ice core dating, infrared stimulated luminescence,

  isotope geochemistry, isotopic tracing, lake level analysis, lead-lead isotope geochemistry, lithostratigraphy,

  low-temperature thermochronometry, magnetostratigraphy, nitrogen isotope analysis,

  optically stimulated luminescence, oxidizable carbon ratio, paleoaltimetry, paleobiogeography, paleobotany,

  paleoceanography, paleoclimatology, paleoecology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction, paleogeography,

  paleomagnetic dating, paleosol analysis, paleotopography, palynology, potassium-argon dating,

  radiocarbon dating, radioluminescence, sea level variation, sedimentation rate chronology, stratigraphy,

  thermoluminescence, trilobite-zone dating, carbon-isotope analysis, paleontology,

  Bayesian Chronological Modelling, oxygen isotope record

sedimentary rocks - radioisotope dating, U/Pb dating

seismites - sequence stratigraphy

shales - Rb-Sr dating

shoreline deposits - optically stimulated luminescence

silica enriched sediments - radiolarian zone dating, diatom-zone dating

silt - thermoluminescence, varve chronology

soils - aeolian geomorphology, 137Cs dating, 36Cl dating, environmental release dating,

  geochemical dating, geomorphology, nitrogen isotope analysis, optically stimulated luminescence,

  oxidizable carbon ratio, 210Pb dating, pedoarchaeology, radiocarbon dating, uranium/thorium dating

  bomb-radiocarbon dating, carbon-isotope analysis

speleothems - Dansgaard-Oeschger Events, oxygen isotope record, paleoclimatology, radiocarbon dating,

  speleothem deposition, uranium/thorium dating

stalagmites - paleoclimatology, radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, uranium/thorium dating

stratified fluvial deposits - oxidizable carbon ratio

tempestite - sequence stratigraphy

terrestrial sediments - fungal spore zone dating, magnetobiostratigraphy, magneto(cyclo)stratigraphy,

  spore dating

till - lithostratigraphy

travertine - oxygen isotope record, radiocarbon dating, uranium/thorium dating

tsunami-laid sands - optically stimulated luminescence

tuffaceous sediments - argon-40/argon-39 dating, foraminifera-zone dating, radiocarbon dating,

  U/Pb dating, (U-Th)/He dating

turbidites - chemostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy

varves - radiocarbon dating, uranium/thorium dating

vessicular soils - oxidizable carbon ratio

 

Mineral

adularia - argon-40/argon-39 dating, oxygen isotope record

alkali feldspar - 40K-40Ca ‘double-plus’ dating, optically stimulated luminescence, thermochronometry

alunite - argon-40/argon-39 dating, potassium-argon dating, stable isotope analysis

amazonite - Rb-Sr dating

amphibole - argon-40/argon-39 dating, Rb-Sr dating

andesites - argon-40/argon-39 dating, potassium-argon dating, 238U-230Th-226Ra dating

annealed quartz - optically stimulated luminescence

apatite - detrital thermochronometry, fission track dating, 4He/3He thermochronometry,

  low-temperature thermochronometry, thermochronometry, thermoluminescence, U/Pb dating,

  (U-Th)/He dating

arc magmas - oxygen isotope record

arkose - oxygen isotope record

baddeleyite - U/Pb dating

barite - fission track dating

basalts - argon-40/argon-39 dating, 36Cl dating, 3He dating, 4He/3He thermochronometry,

  nitrogen isotope analysis, 231Pa/230Th ratio, potassium-argon dating, archaeometry

basaltic glass - obsidian hydration dating

batholiths - argon-40/argon-39 dating

bentonite - nannofossil zone dating, potassium-argon dating, U/Pb dating

biotite - argon-40/argon-39 dating, fission track dating, potassium-argon dating, Rb-Sr dating,

  thermochronometry

boninitic pillows - argon-40/argon-39 dating

boulders - 10Be/9Be dating

calcite - electron spin resonance, optically stimulated luminescence, oxygen isotope record,

  thermoluminescence, uranium/thorium dating

celadonite - argon-40/argon-39 dating

cesium minerals - Rb-Sr dating

chert - 10Be/9Be dating, archaeometry

cryptotephra - ice core dating, geochemical dating

dacites - 238U-230Th-226Ra dating

desert glass - 26Al dating, 10Be/9Be dating, 26Al/10Be surface exposure dating

detrital minerals - argon-40/argon-39 dating

diamond - thermoluminescence

diorite - lithodemic unit

dunite - Rb-Sr dating

dykes - argon-40/argon-39 dating, lithodemic unit

eclogites - Lu-Hf

epidote - fission track dating

extrusives - lithodemic unit, lithostratigraphy

feldspar - argon-40/argon-39 dating, electron spin resonance, infrared stimulated luminescence,

  iodine-xenon dating, optically stimulated luminescence, radioluminescence, Rb-Sr dating,

  thermoluminescence, U/Pb dating

fire-cracked rocks - thermoluminescence

flint - electron spin resonance, optically stimulated luminescence

flow deposits - geochemical dating

gabbro - argon-40/argon-39 dating, lithodemic unit

galena - Pb-Pb dating, U/Pb dating

garnet - fission track dating, Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd dating

geologic materials - stable isotope analysis

glacial ice - 10Be/9Be dating, 210Pb dating

gneiss - lithodemic unit, Rb-Sr dating

goethite - 4He/3He thermochronometry, (U-Th)/He dating

granite - 36Cl dating, iodine-129 dating, lithodemic unit, optically stimulated luminescence, Rb-Sr dating,

  thermochronometry, thermoluminescence, U/Pb dating

granodiorite - lithodemic unit

greigite - paleomagnetic dating

groundwater - 81Kr, radiocarbon dating, radioisotope dating, stable isotope analysis, tritium analysis,

  tritium/helium-3 dating, 234U excess dating, 36Cl dating

halite - iodine-xenon dating

hematite - pigment dating

hornblende - argon-40/argon-39 dating, potassium-argon dating, Rb-Sr dating, thermochronometry,

  U/Pb dating

ice - 10Be/9Be dating, 36Cl dating

ice cores - 10Be/9Be dating, oxygen isotope record

Iceland spar - thermoluminescence

igneous materials - lead-lead isotope geochemistry, potassium-argon dating, radioisotope dating,

  Rb-Sr dating, Re-Os dating, Sm-Nd dating, U/Pb dating

intrusives - lithodemic unit, U/Pb dating

K-bentonite - event stratigraphy

K-feldspar - argon-40/argon-39 dating, infrared stimulated luminescence, optically stimulated luminescence

  Rb-Sr dating, thermochronometry

komatiites - Sm-Nd dating

lavas - argon-40/argon-39 dating, 36Cl dating, cosmogenic dating, magnetostratigraphy,

  paleomagnetic dating, potassium-argon dating, varnish stratigraphy

lepidolite - Rb-Sr dating

limestone - 41Ca dating, cyclostratigraphy, electron spin resonance, Rb-Sr dating

lunar rocks - Kr-Kr exposure age, cosmochemistry

magma - chemostratigraphy, isotopic tracing, oxygen isotope record

magnetite - paleomagnetic dating, Rb-Sr dating

manganese nodules - 26Al dating, 10Be/9Be dating, diatom-zone dating,

   26Al/10Be surface exposure dating

metamorphic rocks - argon-40/argon-39 dating, radioisotope dating, Sm-Nd dating, U/Pb dating

mica - argon-40/argon-39 dating, fission track dating, K-Ca dating, optically stimulated luminescence,

  potassium-argon dating, Rb-Sr dating

microcline - Rb-Sr dating

minerals - electron spin resonance, isotope geochemistry, thermoluminescence, U/Pb dating

mineral crystals - optically stimulated luminescence

mineral grains - U/Pb dating

mixed silicates - optically stimulated luminescence

molybdenite - Re-Os dating

monazite - thermochronometry, U/Pb dating, U/Pb dating

muscovite - argon-40/argon-39 dating, 40K-40Ca ‘double-plus’ dating, potassium-argon dating,

  Rb-Sr dating, thermochronometry

mylonitic rocks - thermochronometry

natrojarosite - argon-40/argon-39 dating

natural glasses - fission track dating

nepheline - Rb-Sr dating

obsidian - fission track dating, hydration profiles, thermoluminescence, geochemical dating,

  archaeometry

olivine - cosmogenic dating, 3He dating, 4He/3He thermochronometry

olivine crystals in basalt - 4He/3He thermochronometry

ores - radioisotope dating

orthoclase - Rb-Sr dating

oxide grains - oxygen isotope record

pegmatite - K-Ca dating, Rb-Sr dating, thermochronometry

pelite - 10Be/9Be dating

pitchstone - fission track dating

plagioclase - argon-40/argon-39 dating, cosmogenic dating, infrared stimulated luminescence,

  iodine-xenon dating, potassium-argon dating, Rb-Sr dating, 36Cl dating

plutonics - lithodemic unit

polar ice - 36Cl dating

potassium minerals - Rb-Sr dating

pumice - electron spin resonance

pyrite - Re-Os dating

pyroxenes - argon-40/argon-39 dating

pyrrhotite - paleomagnetic dating, Pb-Pb dating, Re-Os dating, U/Pb dating

quartz - 10Be/9Be dating, electron spin resonance, hydration profiles, infrared stimulated luminescence,

  Ne-21 dating, optically stimulated luminescence, radiocarbon dating, thermochronometry,

  thermoluminescence, 26Al/10Be surface exposure dating

quartz grains - aeolian geomorphology, 26Al dating

quartz in rock exposures - 26Al dating

rainwater - 10Be/9Be dating

recent waters - 36Cl dating

rhyolite - argon-40/argon-39 dating, optically stimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence,

  U/Pb dating

rift volcanics - seafloor spreading rates

rocks - paleoaltimetry, Rb-Sr dating, stratigraphy, thermoluminescence, U/Pb dating, uranium/thorium dating,

  varnish stratigraphy

rock surfaces - 10Be/9Be dating

rutile - U/Pb dating

sanidine - argon-40/argon-39 dating, potassium-argon dating

scheelite - Sm-Nd dating

schists - argon-40/argon-39 dating, lithodemic unit

sericite - argon-40/argon-39 dating

sills - lithodemic unit

sodium feldspars - infrared stimulated luminescence

sphalerite - Rb-Sr dating

sphene - fission track dating, U/Pb dating

sulfide ores - Re-Os dating

surface rock - 3He dating, optically stimulated luminescence,

  26Al/10Be surface exposure dating

syenite - lithodemic unit, Rb-Sr dating

sylvite - K-Ca dating

tektites - argon-40/argon-39 dating, fission track dating

telluride minerals - Xe-Xe dating

tephra - argon-40/argon-39 dating, biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy,

  electron spin resonance, event stratigraphy, fission track dating, geochemical dating, ice core dating,

  ice flow models, isotopic tracing, loess-chronometry, magnetostratigraphy, nannofossil zone dating,

  optically stimulated luminescence, oxygen isotope record, paleomagnetic dating, potassium-argon dating,

  sapropel chonology, sedimentation rate chronology, sequence stratigraphy, stable isotope analysis,

  tephrochronology, thermoluminescence, U/Pb dating, uranium/thorium dating, varve chronology,

  stratigraphy, archaeometry, Bayesian Chronological Modelling

terrestrial rocks - cosmogenic dating

titanite - fission track dating, thermochronometry, U/Pb dating, (U-Th)/He dating

tourmaline - argon-40/argon-39 dating, Pb-Pb dating, Sm-Nd dating, U/Pb dating

volcanic ash - electron spin resonance

volcanic feldspar - potassium-argon dating

volcanic glass - obsidian hydration dating, potassium-argon dating

volcanic rock - argon-40/argon-39 dating, oxygen isotope record, Sm-Nd dating

water - argon-39 dating, 7Be dating, 10Be/9Be dating, 36Cl dating, environmental release dating,

  geochemical dating, hydrogen isotope analysis, isotope geochemistry, isotopic tracing,

  oxygen isotope record, radiocarbon dating, stable isotope analysis, carbon-isotope analysis,

  tritium analysis

whole rock - Pb-Pb dating, U/Pb dating

zircon - detrital thermochronometry, fission track dating, helium-lead dating,

  high-temperature thermochronology, optically stimulated luminescence, Pb-Pb dating, Pu-Xe dating,

  radioluminescence, thermochronometry, thermoluminescence, U/Pb dating, (U-Th)/He dating

zirconolite - U/Pb dating

 

Manufactures

ammunition - isotopic tracing, lead-lead isotope geochemistry

architecture - style

artifacts - authenticity dating, corrosion age models, cross-dating, cultural affiliation dating,

  optically stimulated luminescence, sequence dating, seriation, stratigraphy, style, typology,

  forensic dating, 26Al/10Be surface exposure dating, Bayesian Chronological Modelling

astronomical artifacts - astronomy dating

axes - typology

bricks - optically stimulated luminescence, rehydroxylation dating, thermoluminescence

bronze - patination

burials - nitrogen analysis

burnt flints - optically stimulated luminescence

carvings - subjects depicted, style

cast metal - authenticity dating

ceramics - artifact time marker, authenticity dating, fission track dating, rehydroxylation dating, seriation

chamber tombs - geoarchaeology

chemical residues - chemical transformations

clay artifacts - isotopic tracing

coins – numismatics

documents - authenticity dating, document dating

fabrics - radiocarbon dating

fine art - authenticity dating

fire treated rocks - thermoluminescence

fired ceramics - optically stimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence

flint artifact - patination

geoglyphs - cosmogenic dating, geoarchaeology

glass - 26Al dating, obsidian hydration dating, patination

heat treated projectile point - potassium-argon dating

human artifacts - cultural affiliation dating, forensic dating

industrial glasses - obsidian hydration dating

ink - chemical transformations, ink dating

iron - radiocarbon dating

language - cultural affiliation dating

lead artifacts - magnetic lead dating

lime - radiocarbon dating

metals - corrosion age models

middens - fluorine analysis

obsidian artifacts - obsidian hydration dating

obsidian flakes - obsidian hydration dating

organic artifacts - Nd-Nd ratios, 87Sr/86Sr ratios

paint - pigment dating

paper - paper dating

petroglyphs - cosmogenic dating, geoarchaeology, patination, radiocarbon dating, style, varnish stratigraphy

petroleum products - chemical transformations

points - artifact time marker, seriation, typology, style

pollutants - environmental release dating, isotopic tracing, lead-lead isotope geochemistry, radioisotope dating,

  stable isotope analysis

porcelain - optically stimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence

pottery - optically stimulated luminescence, potassium-argon dating, rehydroxylation dating, sequence dating,

  seriation, thermoluminescence, typology, uranium/thorium dating, style, archaeometry

pottery sherds - optically stimulated luminescence

quartz artifacts - quartz hydration dating

rock art - patination, style, subjects depicted, varnish stratigraphy

slag - thermoluminescence

stone artifacts - argon-40/argon-39 dating, cosmogenic dating, geoarchaeology, patination, varnish stratigraphy

stone circles - astronomy dating

stone tools - geoarchaeology

stoneware - thermoluminescence

terraced soils - pedoarchaeology

terracotta - thermoluminescence

tile - rehydroxylation dating, thermoluminescence

timber circles - astronomy dating

underground storage tanks - corrosion age models

waste encasing glasses - obsidian hydration dating

 

Organic

acritarchs - palynomorph zone dating

algae - paleoecology, paleolimnology

algae spores - palynomorph zone dating

alkenone - carbon-isotope analysis, planktonic stratigraphy, sapropel chonology, radiocarbon dating

amino acids - amino acid racemization, nitrogen isotope analysis

ammonites - ammonite-zone dating

animal tissues - radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeology

aquatic fauna and flora - lake sediment successions

antlers - fluorine analysis, U-Fl-N dating

bacteria - DNA analysis

biogenic materials - paleoaltimetry, radioisotope dating

biogenic silica - cyclostratigraphy, oxygen isotope record

biogeochemicals - paleoenvironmental reconstruction

blood - molecular dating, T-cell DNA age, forensic dating

blood cells - forensic dating

blowflies - entomological time of death

bone - amino acid racemization, anthropological age analysis, bomb-radiocarbon dating,

  41Ca dating, dentition age analysis, DNA analysis, electron spin resonance, fluorine analysis,

  lead-lead isotope geochemistry, nitrogen analysis, radiocarbon dating, U-Fl-N dating,

  uranium/thorium dating, forensic dating, nitrogen isotope analysis, paleoanthropology

  paleodiet reconstruction, paleoecology, stable isotope analysis, bone growth lines, growth ring age

bristlecones - deuterium analysis

calcareous nannofossils - astrobiochronology, nannofossil zone dating, paleoceanography, paleoecology

calcareous nannoplankton - paleoceanography

cellulose - oxygen isotope record

charcoal - pigment dating, radiocarbon dating

chondrophores - shell growth lines

collagen - DNA analysis

conodonts - conodont-zone dating

corals - 26Al dating, 10Be/9Be dating, coral reef dating, coral ring dating, cosmogenic dating,

  electron spin resonance, event stratigraphy, meltwater pulse, radiocarbon dating, sea level variation,

  uranium/thorium dating, bomb-radiocarbon dating, 231Pa/230Th ratio,

  26Al/10Be surface exposure dating

cotton - radiocarbon dating

dentine - amino acid racemization, forensic dating, dental age analysis

desert varnish - amino acid racemization, 7Be dating, 231Pa/235U ratio, radiocarbon dating

  uranium/thorium dating

diatoms - diatom-zone dating, optically stimulated luminescence, paleoclimatology, paleolimnology,

  radiocarbon dating, 32Si dating, paleoceanography

dinoflagellates - astrobiochronology, cyclostratigraphy, dinoflagellate-zone dating, palynomorph zone dating

DNA - DNA analysis, molecular anthropology, cultural affiliation dating, Bayesian Chronological Modelling

ear bone - bone growth lines, growth ring age

ear wax - ear wax age, growth ring age

eggshells - amino acid racemization, DNA analysis, uranium/thorium dating

elephant tusks - tusk ring analysis

eye crystallin - bomb-radiocarbon dating

eyestalks - growth ring age

faunas - paleobiogeography, paleoecology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction, zooarchaeology, paleobiology

fibrin - forensic dating

fin rays - growth ring age

fish scales - scales growth lines

flies - entomological time of death

flora - paleobiogeography, paleobotany, paleoecology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction,

  paleobiology, paleobotany

food residues - chemical transformations, nitrogen isotope analysis, paleodiet reconstruction,

  radiocarbon dating, stable isotope analysis

foraminiferas - astrobiochronology, carbon-isotope analysis, cyclostratigraphy, Dansgaard-Oeschger Events,

  foraminifera-zone dating, magnetobiostratigraphy, oxygen isotope record, paleoceanography,

  paleoclimatology, paleoecology, paleothermometry, planktonic stratigraphy, stable isotope analysis,

  palaeobiogeography

fossils - biochronology, biostratigraphy, biozones, cross-dating, ecostratigraphy, event stratigraphy,

  fossil assemblages, isotopic tracing, magnetostratigraphy, paleobiogeography, paleobotany, paleoecology,

  paleogeography, paleothermometry, paleotopography, stratigraphy, U/Pb dating, uranium/thorium dating,

  paleontology, Bayesian Chronological Modelling

fossil flora - paleobotany

fossil human bones - paleoanthropology

fungi - DNA analysis, paleoecology

fungal spores - fungal spore zone dating, palynomorph zone dating

fusulinids - fusulinid-zone dating

gastric mills - growth ring age, bone growth lines

gastropods - paleoclimatology, paleothermometry

genes – DNA analysis

genetic sequences - DNA analysis

graptolites - graptolite-zone dating

hair - bomb-radiocarbon dating, DNA analysis

human body - body temperature time of death, entomological time of death

humic acids - radiocarbon dating

inner ear - growth ring age

insects - entomological time of death, fossil assemblages

insect assemblage - paleoenvironmental reconstruction, fossil assemblages

invertebrate remains - palynomorph zone dating

ivory - radiocarbon dating

jaw - dental age analysis

lacustrine diatomites - 10Be/9Be dating

lichen - lichenometry

lipids - bomb-radiocarbon dating

dendrochronology

macrofossils - radiocarbon dating, varve chronology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction

marine shells - uranium/thorium dating

microfossils - biostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, fossil assemblages

microplankton - astrobiochronology

molluscs - uranium/thorium dating

mollusc valves - shell growth lines

mtDNA - DNA analysis

nannofossils - carbon-isotope analysis, cyclostratigraphy, nannofossil zone dating, oxygen isotope record,

  paleoclimatology

Neanderthal genome - DNA analysis

non-pollen palynomorphs - paleoecology

organic carbon – cyclostratigraphy, geochemical dating

organic substances - amino acid racemization, bomb-radiocarbon dating, carbon-isotope analysis,

  Nd-Nd ratios, radiocarbon dating, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, stable isotope analysis

ostracodes - amino acid racemization, ostracode assemblages, paleoclimatology, paleothermometry

otoliths - bone growth lines, growth ring age, otoliths growth lines

peat - paleoclimatology, palynology, 210Pb dating, radiocarbon dating, spore dating, uranium/thorium dating,

  carbon-isotope analysis, paleoenvironmental reconstruction

phytoliths - paleoecology

phytoplankton - planktonic stratigraphy

plankton - alkenone analysis, cyclostratigraphy, marine isotope stage, oxygen isotope record

plant remains - pedoarchaeology, radiocarbon dating

pollen - Dansgaard-Oeschger Events, lake sediment successions, paleoclimatology, paleoecology,

  paleoenvironmental reconstruction, paleolimnology, palynology, radiocarbon dating

proteins - amino acid racemization

protozoa - palynomorph zone dating

radiolarians - radiolarian zone dating

rock varnish - paleoclimatology

sagebrush growth rings - paleoenvironmental reconstruction

scales - growth ring age

shell - amino acid racemization, electron spin resonance, oxygen isotope record, paleoclimatology,

  radiocarbon dating, 87Sr/86Sr geochronology, stable isotope analysis, thermoluminescence,

  growth ring age, shell growth lines

shelly material - oxygen isotope record

silk - radiocarbon dating

skeletal material - oxygen isotope record

spines - growth ring age

starch - molecular dating

stomach contents - nitrogen isotope analysis, paleodiet reconstruction, stable isotope analysis

tasmanites - palynomorph zone dating

teeth - anthropological age analysis, bomb-radiocarbon dating, 36Cl dating, cosmogenic dating,

  dentition age analysis, DNA analysis, electron spin resonance, fluorine analysis, Lamendin age,

  lead-lead isotope geochemistry, oxygen isotope record, radiocarbon dating, U-Fl-N dating,

  uranium/thorium dating, forensic dating, nitrogen isotope analysis, paleodiet reconstruction, paleoecology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction,

  Bayesian Chronological Modelling

tissues - amino acid racemization, DNA analysis

tooth enamel - bomb-radiocarbon dating, electron spin resonance, paleoanthropology

trees - event stratigraphy, paleoaltimetry, paleoecology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction,

  dendrochronology

tree-rings - cross-dating, environmental release dating, paleoclimatology, radiocarbon dating,

  tritium analysis, bomb-radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction,

  paleoprecipitation records, oxygen isotope record

trilobites - paleoecology, trilobite-zone dating

vertebrae - growth ring age, bone growth lines

viruses - Bayesian Chronological Modelling

whale ear wax - ear wax age

wine - bomb-radiocarbon dating

wood - authenticity dating, dendrochronology, dendroclimatology, dendroecology, dendrogeomorphology,

  molecular dating, radiocarbon dating, spectroscopic dating, uranium/thorium dating, stable isotope analysis

  oxygen isotope record, growth ring age

wood beams - dendrochronology

woodwork – dendrochronology

yeasts - DNA analysis

 

Extraterrestrial

achondrites - 26Al/26Mg dating, 60Fe/60Ni dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating

angrites - 26Al/26Mg dating, hafnium-tungsten dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating, Pb-Pb dating, U/Pb dating

anorthite - 26Al/26Mg dating

asteroids - hafnium-tungsten dating

basaltic achondrite - Pb-Pb dating

CAIs (Ca-Al-rich inclusions) - 26Al/26Mg dating, 10Be/10B dating, 41Ca/41K dating, 36Cl/36S dating,

  extinct radioisotope chronometry, iodine-xenon dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating, Pb-Pb dating,

  244Pu fission track thermometry, Rb-Sr dating, U/Pb dating

carbonates - 53Mn/53Cr dating

chondrites - 26Al/26Mg dating, 10Be/10B dating, 41Ca/41K dating, 36Cl/36S dating, 60Fe/60Ni dating,

  hafnium-tungsten dating, iodine-xenon dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating, niobium–zirconium chronometry,

  Pb-Pb dating, 107Pd-107Ag dating, 244Pu fission track thermometry, Rb-Sr dating, Sm-Nd dating,

  U/Pb dating, (U-Th)/He dating

chondrules - 26Al/26Mg dating, 36Cl/36S dating, extinct radioisotope chronometry, 60Fe/60Ni dating,

  hafnium-tungsten dating, iodine-xenon dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating, Pb-Pb dating, U/Pb dating

diogenites - 53Mn/53Cr dating

enstatite - 60Fe/60Ni dating, iodine-xenon dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating

eucrites - 26Al/26Mg dating, 60Fe/60Ni dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating, Pb-Pb dating, Pu-Xe dating,

  U/Pb dating

fayalite - 53Mn/53Cr dating

Fe-meteorites - Pb-Pb dating, 107Pd-107Ag dating, Re-Os dating

feldspar - 26Al/26Mg dating

galaxies - red shift dating

hibonite - 26Al/26Mg dating, 10Be/10B dating, 41Ca/41K dating, 244Pu fission track thermometry

lunar basalts - U/Pb dating

lunar samples - cosmic ray dating, cosmochronology, fission track dating, geochemical dating,

  hafnium-tungsten dating, iodine-xenon dating, radioisotope dating, Rb-Sr dating, U/Pb dating, cosmochemistry

lunar meteorite impact melt clasts - argon-40/argon-39 dating

magnetite - 60Fe/60Ni dating, iodine-xenon dating

Martian meteorites - hafnium-tungsten dating

melilite - 26Al/26Mg dating

mesosiderite - 26Al/26Mg dating, niobium–zirconium chronometry, Sm-Nd dating

meteorites - 26Al/26Mg dating, argon-40/argon-39 dating, 10Be/10B dating, 41Ca/41K dating,

  36Cl/36S dating, cosmic ray dating, cosmochronology, cosmogenic dating, electron spin resonance,

  extinct radioisotope chronometry, 60Fe/60Ni dating, fission track dating, geochemical dating,

  hafnium-tungsten dating, iodine-xenon dating, isotope geochemistry, low-temperature thermochronometry,

  53Mn/53Cr dating, Ne-21 dating, nitrogen isotope analysis, oxygen isotope record, Pb-Pb dating,

  107Pd-107Ag dating, potassium-argon dating, 244Pu fission track thermometry, Pu-Xe dating,

  radioisotope dating, Rb-Sr dating, 146Sm-142Nd dating, Sm-Nd dating, thermochronometry,

  thermoluminescence, U/Pb dating, varnish stratigraphy, Xe-Xe dating, cosmochemistry,

  4He/3He thermochronometry

olivine - 26Al/26Mg dating, 60Fe/60Ni dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating

oxide grains - oxygen isotope record

pallasites - 53Mn/53Cr dating, 107Pd-107Ag dating, Re-Os dating

phosphates - iodine-xenon dating, Pb-Pb dating, U/Pb dating

plagioclase - 26Al/26Mg dating

presolar grains - 60Fe/60Ni dating

pre-solar nebula fossils - 26Al/26Mg dating

pyroxene - 26Al/26Mg dating, 60Fe/60Ni dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating, Pb-Pb dating

rutile - niobium–zirconium chronometry

Shallowater meteorites - iodine-xenon dating

silicate - iodine-xenon dating

sodalite - 36Cl/36S dating

spinel - 53Mn/53Cr dating

stars - red shift dating

starlight - red shift dating

sulfides - 60Fe/60Ni dating, 53Mn/53Cr dating, Pb-Pb dating, 107Pd-107Ag dating, Rb-Sr dating

supernovae - red shift dating

troilite - 60Fe/60Ni dating, iodine-xenon dating, Pb-Pb dating

ureilite - 26Al/26Mg dating

wadalite - 36Cl/36S dating

 

Dating Tools

 

Chronological Studies & Dating Methods - Time Periods

 

Chronological Studies & Dating Methods - Databases

 

Dating Methods/Pattern Recognition – Proposed Syllabus

 

Home

 

mailto:beauv3@netins.net

 

revised 10/19/14

 

pub 8/13