Prehistory of the WNW edge of the Ozarks


MAP
      This is an area of approximately 350 sq. mi., and includes all or most of the counties 
Jasper, Barton, and Vernon of Missouri, and Cherokee, Crawford, and Bourbon of Kansas,
plus small segments of neighboring counties in Missouri. Drainage is split between the
Neosho River toward the south and west, and the Missouri River toward the north and 
east. Most of it is relatively flat, Pennsylvanian Period surface with slow, sluggish 
streams. This area is rich in coal, with seams thickening in eastern Kansas from the thin, 
clay interspersed seams of western Missouri. Its richness is reinforced seeing the
shovel Big Brutus with its 160 foot height, 11 million pound weight including ballast,
15,000 horsepower peak power usage, and 150 ton heaped dipper capacity near West Mineral,
Kansas. Jasper County, the southeast corner of this section, on the edge of the Ozark
Dome which rose from late Mississippian into early Pennsylvanian times, has Mississippian
Period surface rock with occasional Pennsylvanian caps on the tops of hills. None of the 
area has been below sea level since the middle Pennsylvanian so erosion has been
continuous, but the land has gone through a series of levelings and uplifts. For more
information on the geology of the Tri-State area, including its lead and zinc deposits,
see the pages on  94W/36N.


      The following is a listing of archaeological site notes for this section beginning at
the southeast corner and ending at the northwest corner.

Neosho River Watershed
Newton County
 Shoal Creek
   R site - near Reddings Mill, just south of Joplin
       Bluff shelter, 27 points, 5 blades, 6 scrapers
       Probable occupations from Early Archaic to Middle Archaic, and Late Archaic
            to Woodland periods
       Ref. - 1

Lawrence Co.
       Fluted point
       Ref. - 3

Jasper Co.

       Saddle faced bannerstone, 2 7/8" x 3 3/4", black and white porphyry
               hardstone, polished 
            Ref. - 4
      
       Folsom fluted point - in Jasper Co. on divide between Spring R./Neosho R. drainage
               and Osage R./Missouri R. drainage 
            Ref. - 3

       Ernest J. Palmer, Webb City, d. 1962, built a collection during the first half of the
          20th century from throughout Jasper Co. and mainly from open sites on stream
          terraces. It was deposited at the University of Missouri and published on in
          1963. Those artifacts with a locational referent are listed in their respective
          areas. Sites and artifacts noted but without a location ascribed are listed here.
              Isolated artifacts - a restorable clay tempered cordmarked vessel, a shell
                  tempered engraved shard, 2 clay tempered pinched shards, a bone punch,
                  3 bone awls, 4 eccentrics, 2 bone flaking tools, 2 unfinished points, an
                  odd shouldered point, a bone point, 2 shaft smoothers, a sandstone disc,
                  2 chipped stone weights, a sandstone boatstone
              Sites
                  BB - 4 points, 2 scrapers
                  JC - 2 points
                  LR - 6 blades, a drill, a knife, 13 points, 6 scrapers
                  M - a blade, 2 points
                  Mic - a drill, 2 points, a scraper
                  OL - 5 points
                  S - a drill, 15 points
                  SCr - a point
                  SC - a point, a scraper
                  SL - 14 blades, 7 drills, 2 knives, 48 points, 2 limestone tempered tooled
                        shards, 3 limestone tempered cordmarked shards, 13 scrapers
                  SR - a blade, a point
                  SS - 6 blades, 7 points, a scraper
                  U - 73 blades, 20 drills, 5 knives, 154 points, 60 scrapers, 2 shell tempered
                       plain shards, 18 limestone tempered tooled shards, 28 limestone tempered
                       cordmarked shards
             Ref. - 1

 Grove Creek
      GCr (GC) site - northeast of Duenweg on west side of Grove Creek - 14 blades,
            9 drills, 28 points, 10 scrapers
          Ref. - 1

 Turkey Creek
      Old Spanish or Indian diggings - at Joplin
          Ref. - 5
      TCr site - northeast of Joplin on south side of Turkey Creek - 11 blades, 14 points,
            1 scraper
          Ref. - 1

 Center Creek
      F site - northwest of Fidelity on north side of Center Creek - a double bitted
            chipped stone axe, 46 blades, 13 drills, 3 knives, 129 points, 31 scrapers
          Ref. - 1
      S30 site - north of Scotland on north side of Center Creek - 3 blades, 4 drills,
            9 points, 3 scrapers
          Ref. - 1
      SM site - south of Smithfield on north side of Center Creek - a double bitted
            chipped stone axe, 56 blades, 8 drills, 99 points, 21 scrapers
          Ref. - 1
      JT site - east of Johnstown on east side of Center Creek - 3 blades, a drill, 
            10 knives, 47 points, 9 scrapers
          Ref. - 1
      L site - north of Cartersville on north side of Center Creek - 2 blades, 2 points
          Ref. - 1
      CS site - northwest of Webb City on south side of Center Creek - a double bitted
             chipped stone axe, 44 blades, 22 drills, 5 knives, 142 points, 4 limestone
             tempered tooled shards, 3 limestone tempered cordmarked shards, 42 scrapers
          Ref. - 1 
      Oronogo shelter - southeast of Oronogo on north side of Center Creek
          Ref. - 1
      WW site - southeast of Oronogo on north side of Center Creek - 2 double bitted
             chipped stone axes, 18 blades, 3 drills, 4 knives, 96 points, 6 limestone
             tempered tooled shards, 4 limestone tempered cordmarked shards, a shell
             tempered plain shard, 13 scrapers
          Ref. - 1
      O site - south of Oronogo on south side of Center Creek - 2 double bitted chipped
             stone axes, 7 blades, 6 drills, 23 knives, 44 points, 49 scrapers
          Ref. - 1
      IB site - between Oronogo & Carl Junction on north side of Center Creek - 5 blades,
             a drill, 20 points, 2 scrapers
          Ref. - 1
      Carl Junction cave (CJC) - between Webb City & Carl Junction on south side of
             Center Creek 
          Ref. - 1
      CJ site - south of Carl Junction on north side of Center Creek - 6 blades, a drill,
             7 points, 2 scrapers
          Ref. - 1

 Spring River
      Carthage Civil War Museum - display of artifacts found near Carthage - an axe,
             a grinding stone, a hoe, a knife, 3 scrapers
      Pottery vessel upper half - about 5 miles east of Carthage on Spring R. bank
          Ref. - 6
      CF site - northeast of Carthage on south side of Spring River - a blade, 7 points,
          Ref. - 1
      DR site - southeast of Alba on south side of Spring River - 5 points
          Ref. - 1
      A1 site - south of Alba on south side of Spring River - a drill, 5 points
          Ref. - 1
      G site - north of Galesburg on north side of Spring River, east of Dry Fork confluence -
             61 points, 2 double bitted chipped stone axes, 16 blades, 7 drills, 3 knives,
             16 scrapers
          Ref. - 1

 Dry Fork Creek
      N site - northwest of Alba on north side of Dry Fork, west of Buck Creek confluence -
             a double bitted chipped stone axe, 15 blades, 10 drills, a knife, 28 points,
             14 scrapers
          Ref. - 1
     
Cedar Co. 
      Butterfly bannerstone - white quartz w/ red tinges, 3"wide, 1 5/8"long
          Ref. - 7
      Folsom fluted point - white chert
          Ref. - 8
      Clovis fluted point - large
          Ref. - 3

Missouri River Watershed
Vernon Co.
 Osage River
      Mounds - Vernon Co. with several hundred low, flat mounds in 1938
          Ref. - 9
      Big Osage village - in central part of Sec. 34, T34N, R31W - refuse heaps, shell
             and bone fragments, soapstone pipe fragments, European artifacts
          Ref. - 9, 10
      23VE4 (Little Osage site) - 6 miles north and west of Big Osage village - collected
             by Smithsonian in 1937, double pointed knife
          Ref. - 9, 11
  
St. Clair Co.
      Limestone celt, 7" long
          Ref. - 12
      Fluted point
          Ref. - 3

Bourbon Co.
     14BO3462 - north Bourbon county, Cuesta phase, ca. AD 500-800
          Ref. - 13

Southeast Kansas
      Harahey village - Harahey knife
          Ref. - 14
      Doniphan site - pottery, Kansa
          Ref. - 2
      Reany site - Kansa, pottery
          Ref. - 2
      Fanning site - pottery, rib edge awl, catlinite, Harahey knive
          Ref. - 2

References
      1 - Marshall, R.A., 1963, Arch. of Jasper Co., Earnest J. Palmer collection. Plains Anth.,
                 8(19):1-26
      2 - Freeman, J.E., 1962, The Neosho Focus: A Late Prehistoric Culture in NE Okla. Okla. 
                 Anth. Soc. Bull., 10:1-25
      3 - Chapman, C.H., 1975, Archaeology of Missouri I., p. 66,71
      4 - Hothem, L., 1992, Indian Artifacts of the Midwest., p.97
      5 - Goodspeed's 1888 History of McDonald and Newton Counties., 1888, p.144
      6 - Adams, L.M., 1958, Archaeological Investigations of southwest Missouri.,
                 Missouri Archaeologist, 20:1-199
      7 - Hothem, L., 1994, North American Indian Artifacts., p.93
      8 - Missoui Archaeologist, v.13, no.1, 4/1951
      9 - Harner, J., 1939, The Village of the Big Osage. Missouri Archaeologist, v.5, no.1
      10 - Chapman, C.H., 1980, Archaeology of Missouri II., p.102, 117 
      11 - Chapman, C.H., 1959, The Little Osage and Mo Ind. Vill. Sites, ca.1727-1777. 
                  Missouri Archaeologist, 21(1:1-67)
      12 - Hothem, L., 1989, Indian Axes and Related Stone Artifacts., p.104, 219
      13 - Missouri Archaeological Society Quarterly, v.12, no.3 or 4, 1995
      14 - Perino, G., 1985, v.1, Selected Preforms, Points, and Knives of the North 
                  American Indians., p.167
    

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