A listing of prehistoric references at 43N Latitude and 86W Longitude presented from southeast corner to northwest corner

Site Name: None                                     
Location: in Robinson Township, Ottawa Co.
Recovered items: spearpoints, long-stemmed clay pipes, bits of clay pottery
Ref: Clark, H.

Site Name: Spoonville (20OT1)                        
  Location: At junction of Crockery Ck and Grand R. (Spoonville), Ottawa Co.
  Feature: 3 mounds
     Recovered items: adult and adolescent burials, flint blades, copper ladle, 7 copper celts, 
       copper awl, sheet mica, marine shell containers, elbow pipes, part of a groundstone 
       gorget, a corner-notched projectile pt., a blade, groundstone celts, flint points, a
       double-pointed copper pin, part of an engraved turtle shell, pottery fragments 
       including a small restorable quadrilobate pot with zoned rocker stamping on
       the body and a crosshatched rim
  Feature: Refuse heap mound
     Recovered: measurements - 15' high, 45' wide, 100' long; ashes, shells, fishbones
  Feature: Village
     Recovered: 55 projectile points, 5 drills, 21 scrapers, 12 small core 'wedges',
        9 blades, 12 bifacially worked preforms, several block cores, 3 groundstone celts,  
        groundstone gorget fragments, copper awl, hammerstones, abraders, ceramics - 
        242 rimsherds, 3383 bodysherds, including some thick interior-exterior cord-marked 
        sherds, vessels with cross-hatched and rocker stamped rims, quadrilobate vessel
        fragments, faunal remains - bone fragments of 25 individual animals - including deer, 
        elk, beaver, raccoon, sturgeon, two samples of charcoal radiocarbon dated to 
        A.D. 110+-120 and A.D. 215+-120
  Ref: Fitting, 1968, p.12,66
         Fitting, 1975, p. xvii, 91-2, 103-6, 129, 160, 231-2, 240-1
         Hinsdale, 1925, p.67
         Hinsdale, 1931, p.34
         Lillie, p.138
         Page, 1882, Ottawa, p.18,122
         Illustrated, p.36
         Peske, 1962, p.119
         Flanders, 1968
         Cleland, 1966, p.59-67
         Quimby, 1941, Goodall, p. 86, 151-6
         Quimby, 1943
         Crane, 1965
         Prahl, 1970, p. 56-7
         Ottawa Co. Sesquicent. Comm., 1987, p.48
         Yakes, 1979, p.3/8
Site Name: None                                  
  Location: On the banks of Crockery Creek, Ottawa Co.
  Feature: Village
  Recovered items: large amount of pottery, historic - 1779 AD
  Ref.: Page, 1882, Ottawa, p.122
          Lillie, 1931, p.89,138
          Illustrated, p.36
          Hinsdale, 1931, p.34
          Ottawa Co. Sesquicent. Comm., 1987, p.47
          Chrysler, 1975, p.5

Site Name: (Battle Point)                     
Location: Six miles up Grand R. from mouth, at Battle Point, Ottawa Co.
Features: Village, mound, burial ground
Ref: Hinsdale, 1931, p.34
       Ottawa Co. Sesquicentenial Comm., 1987, p.48
       Chrysler, 1975, p.5

Site Name: None
Location: at Grand Haven on Grand River
Feature: Ottawa village
Ref: Chrysler, 1975, p.5
       Yakes, 1979, p.1/4, 3/23
       Yakes, 1985, p.4

Site Name: None                                    
Location: on north side of Grand R. opposite Grand Haven, Ottawa Co.
Features: three mounds, copper hatchets, copper awls, sheets of mica, pipes,
     pottery, shells
Ref: Hinsdale, 1931, p.34
       Shetrone, 1964, p.280

Site Name: None
Location: at mouth of Grand River
Feature: reddish clay till border of Valders glacial advance
Ref: Quimby, 1960, p.21,31

Site Name: None
Location: north from Grand Haven along Lake Michigan shoreline to Lake Harbor
       then on to Muskegon
Feature: trail
Ref: Yakes, 1985, p.238
       Yakes, 1979, p.8/12

Site Name: Yaggie Site (20MU21)
Location: SE 1/4 of NE 1/4 of sec. 19, Fruitport Twsp, Muskegon Co.
Recovered items: points, three endscrapers, debitage, a probable Clovis point
Ref: Clarke, 1974

Site Name: Dierking Site #2 (20MU23)
Location: SW 1/4 of SE 1/4 of Sec. 11, Sullivan Twsp, Muskegon Co.
Recovered items: points
Ref: Clarke, 1974

Site Name: Dierking Site #1 (20MU22)
Location: across Norris Creek from Dierking #2
Recovered items: points
Ref: Clarde, 1974

Site Name: Moorland Mastodon
Location: in Moorland Township
Feature: mastodon, female musk ox skull (Bootherium Sargenti)
Ref: Grand Rapids Museum display
       Muskegon Chronicle, 4/24/77
       Michigan Alumnus, 1974
       Prahl, 1970, p.64
       Quimby, 1960, p.31

Site Name: None                                    
Location: in dunes at rear of U.S Naval Training Center at Port Sherman in Laketon
    Township, Muskegon Co.
Features: Burials
Recovered Items: two skeletons with skulls each having a hole the diameter of a
    pencil in back, metal armbands, tomahawks (including a pipe tomahawk), a squaw
    axe, two or three copper pots apparently used as drums, a medicine stick with
    three silver bands held by rawhide thongs, two small silver brooches, silver beads,
    Crinoid points, a Cruikshank Cross (Jesuit)
Ref: Muskegon Chronicle: 8/6/53, 8/7/53, 8/8/53, 8/10/53, 8/19/53, 9/25/53,
          9/28/75, 10/17/75

Site Name: (Pigeon Hill)                        
Location: at Pigeon Hill, Laketon Township, Muskegon Co.
Recovered Items: silver armbands, glass and copper beads, two bushels of pottery
    fragments, bodies encased in several inches of birch bark; pottery jar and flint
    thumbscraper displayed at Muskegon Co. Museum
Ref: Muskegon Chronicle: 12/30/38, 6/29/39
       Muskegon Co. Museum
       Kyes, 1974, p.2

Site Name: Haieght
Location: by south shore of Muskegon Lake near mouth of Muskegon R. in Muskegon
     Township, Muskegon Co.
Features: Two mounds
Ref: Muskegon Co. Museum chart
       Muskegon Chronicle: 6/29/39 p.5
       Prahl, 1970, p.346,397

Site Name: None
Location: mouth of Muskegon River
Feature: border of Port Huron glacial advance (gray till)
Ref:Quimby, 1960, p.xiv

Site Name: None
Location: east along south side of Muskegon River about 16 miles, crossing over then
       on upstream to join trail running north from Grand Rapids area
Feature: trail
Ref: Yakes, 1985, p.238

Site Name: None
Location: near Muskegon
Feature: round stone ~1 1/2 inch diameter, 4-5 inches long, with hole drilled to
       2-3 inches deep
Ref: Muskegon County Museum - display

Site Name: None
Location: west of Muskegon from beneath 340 feet of water in a zone of shells and 
       sand 5-10 centimeters below lake bottom
Feature: Pisidium shells from Lake Chippewa low water stage radiocarbon dated 
       to 5450 BC +/- 500
Ref: Crane, 1965
       Fitting, 1975
       Muskegon Chronicle, 3/20/77

Site Name: None
Location: 1/2 mile north of Muskegon area
Feature: circular enclosure 150 foot diameter and walls approximately 4-5 feet high
Ref: Muskegon Chronicle, 7/14/37 p.5

Site Name: Spring Creek (20MU3)
Location: on Muskegon River in Egelston Township, Muskegon Co.
Feature: Village
    Recovered items: post mold outlines, hearth remains, refuse pits, points, argillite
        knives, quartzite knife, drills, endscrapers, side scrapers, concave scrapers,
        ground sandstone fragments, slate disks, slate gorget fragments, schist gorget
        fragment, adze bit, igneous rock gorget fragment, polished deer long bone
        fragments, a cut and polished and notched bone sliver, clay elbow pipes; chipped
        stone - 1497 flakes, 253 artifacts, 91 small cores; ceramics - 17,250 bodysherds, 
        1100 rimsherds, representing at least 966 separate vessels; faunal remains of 
        white-tailed deer, beaver, black bear, raccoon, muskrat, dog, gray fox, turtle, 
        bivalves, snails; charcoal radiocarbon dated to A.D. 960+-75
    Ref: Fitting, 1975, p.xi, xxiii,105,113-4,174-7,179,234-5,240-3
           Fitting, 1968
           Crane, H.R., 1958
           Butterfield, 1979, p.85,95,97
           Keslin , 1964
           Cleland, 1969, p.83-4
           Prahl, 1966, p.187,200
           Prahl, 1970
           Quimby, 1964, p.15
           Quimby, 1965, p.168
           Yakes, 1979, p.3/11

Site Name: (South Flats Club)                  
Location: near the Spring Creek site, at South Flats Club, in the northeast quarter of
          section 9 of Egelston Township, Muskegon Co.
Feature: a circular earthwork approximately 90 feet in diameter, 1 foot high, 10 foot wide
     Recovered items: a few cordmarked bodysherds
     Ref: Fitting, 1975, p.177, 235
            Quimby, 1965
            Muskegon Chronicle, 7/14/37 p.5, 10/25/38
            Prahl, 1966, p.200,238
            Prahl, 1970
Site Name: None                                       
Location: stretching for two miles along bluffs of Muskegon R., ten miles east
          of Muskegon, Muskegon Co.
Features: fifteen mounds and villages and a circular enclosure
Recovered items: pottery sherds, tool fragments
Ref: Hinsdale, 1931, p.31
       Muskegon Chronicle: 4/19/35 p.24, 7/14/37 p.5, 10/25/38

Site Name: MacNeal (20MU1)
Location: along the Muskegon R., one mile northeast of Wolf Lake in Egelston
Feature: mound
     Recovered items: a single flexed child burial (less than eight years of age) in a 
         rectangular sub-floor pit, a copper celt, copper bead necklace, a number of exotic
         flint blades, a limestone tempered quadrilobate vessel (questionably attributed to
         this site) with a cross-hatched rim and zoned stamped body decorations, drilled
         bear canine
     Ref: Fitting, 1975, p.113-4
            Muskegon Chronicle, 10/3/31 p.11, 4/19/35 p.24, 7/14/37 p.5
            Quimby, 1941, Goodall
            Quimby, 1941, Hopewell
            Quimby, 1943, p.544, 546-7
            Prahl, 1966, p.187, 200
            Prahl, 1970
            Hinsdale, 1931, p.31, map#7
            Kyes, 1974, p.2
            Grand Rapids Museum Publ., 1977, p.3
            Yakes, 1979, p.3/9

Site Name: None                                        
Location: near Wolf Lake, Muskegon Co.
Recovered item: clay fired pot
Ref: Muskegon Co. Museum display

Site Name: None
Location: along south bank of Muskegon River near Maple Island
Feature: circular enclosure 150 foot in diameter, several burial mounds
Recovered items: pottery, copper beads, copper axe
Ref: Yakes, 1979, p.3/9

Site Name: None
Location: near old River Road along the north bank of Cedar Creek near Maple Island
Recovered items: adult skeletons, copper beads and arm bracelets, pottery
Ref: Yakes, 1979, p.3/9

Site Name: None
Location: along Memorial Drive in North Muskegon
Feature: trail
Ref: Kyvig, 1983, p.33

Site Name: None
Location: on north shore of Duck Lake in Cedar Creek Township, Muskegon Co.
Feature: village
Ref: Hinsdale, 1931, p.31, map 7
       Muskegon Chronicle, 4/19/35 p.24
       Mears, 1951, p.19

Site Name: Michillinda
Location: in layer of peat on shore of Lake Michigan near Michillinda
Recovered items: white pine, white oak, oak, American Elm radiocarbon dated
       to 2150-3470 BC
Ref: Crane, 1959

Site Name: None                                       
Location: on north side of White River at old highway crossing in Montague Township, 
      Muskegon Co.
Features: nine or ten mounds
     Recovered items: dimensions - 4-5' high, oval, 15-20' diameter; skeletons
         in back to back sitting position; fire ring of stones on top
     Ref: Muskegon Chronicle: 10/25/01 p.6, 4/19/35 p.24
            Hinsdale, 1931, p.31, map #7
            Norman, 1950, p.7-9
            Mears,1951, p.19
            Kyes, 1974, p.2,49,84-E

Site Name: None                                         
Location: three miles north of government White Lake channel, 500' to the
      northwest of head of old stream, White R. Township, Muskegon Co.
Feature: palisaded village
Ref: Muskegon Chronicle: 1/8/34

Site Name: None                                          
Location: above mouth of Silver Creek
Features: four mounds, village
Ref: Norman, 1950, p.8-9
       Muskegon Chronicle: 10/25/01 p.6, 7/14/39 p.7
       Hinsdale, 1931, map 7

Site Name: None
Location: in gully beyond Funnell Field in Whitehall
Recovered Items: tempered copper knife
Ref: Norman, 1950, p.4

Site Name: None
Location: in Whitehall in fields along south side of Alice Street
Recovered Item: hammered copper artifact
Ref: Norman, 1950, p.8

Site Name: None
Location: in Montague, across street from Peck residence
Feature: 2 mounds
Ref: Muskegon Chronicle, 10/25/01 p.6

Site Name: None
Location: in ravine near Montague
Recovered item: copper bead necklace
Ref: Norman, 1950, p.3

Site Name: None
Location: at trading post above White River
Feature: mound
Ref: Norman, 1950, p.7

Site Name: None
Location: at Indian Point north of old White Lake channel
Features: palisaded village, mounds
Ref: Muskegon Chronicle, 1/8/34  p.1
       Norman, 1950, p.7-8
       Yakes, 1979, p.3/14

Site Name: None                                          
Location: near White River, Oceana Co.
Recovered items: grooved stone axe
Ref: Muskegon Co. Museum display

Site Name: Mackinac Trail
Location: through Mason and Oceana Co.s near shore then deflecting inland about
      1 mile north of Muskegon Co. line
Feature: roadway
Ref: Hinsdale, 1930, p.130

Site Name: None                                          
Location: near Stony Lake, Oceana Co.
Features: mounds, village
     Recovered items: cordmarked and fabric-impressed pottery with plain and 
            slightly collared rims, a bone harpoon, a number of elbow pipes - one 
            with the effigy of a spotted salamander on it, charcoal, small stone celt,
            4 antler flaking tools, a stone ball about 1 1/2" in dia., points, human
            skeletal remains, red ocher
     Ref: Fitting, 1975, p.179
            Page, 1882, p.79,84
            Hinsdale, 1931, p.32
            Muskegon Chronicle: 1/5/37 p.1
            Muskegon Co. Museum display
            Quimby, 1964
            Yakes, 1979, p.3/11

Site Name: None
Location: Oceana Co.
Feature: grave
Recovered item: marine shell drinking vessel 5"x7"
Ref: Hinsdale, 1925, p.208

Site Name: None
Location: in Oceana Co.
Feature: 16 mounds
Ref: Hinsdale, 1925, p.148-9
       Sodders, 1990, p.154-5

Site Name: None                                           
Location: in Leavitt Township, Oceana Co.
Feature: a circular earthwork
Ref: Hinsdale, 1931, p.32

Site Name: Juniper Beach Site
Location: in Oceana Co.
Recovered items: pottery, points
Ref: Quimby, 1964, p.15

Site Name: None                                            
Location: in Elbridge, Golden, and other townships; Oceana Co.
Recovered items: round stones of various sizes, all as if turned in a lathe, the
        grain of the stone running in an opposite direction of the turning, liable to
        cleavage in the center
Ref: Page, 1882, p.97

Site Name: None                                         
Location: in Golden Twsp on Sec. 15 and other parts of the county, Oceana Co.
Features: arranged pits or depressions, not much over one or two feet in depth
      with large pines growing in some
Ref: Page, 1882, p.97

Site Name: Silver Lake                                  
Location: near Silver Lake, Oceana Co.
Feature: village - summer site
    Recovered items: faunal emphasis on deer, elk, beaver
    Ref: Fitting, 1975, p.179
           Yakes, 1979, p.3/11

Site Name: Dumaw Creek                                
Location: on Dumaw Ck in Oceana Co.
Features: burial site
    Recovered items: nineteen burials - several buried in robes of beaver skins, one 
          with a belt of buffalo hair yarn; a number of copper hair pipes, copper beads,
          a marine shell gorget with a weeping eye design, tinkling cones of native
          copper, pottery - globular cord-marked and fabric-impressed vessels, 135
          projectile points, chipped stone knives, drills, worked flakes, scraping tools,
          small cores, bone awls, beaver incisor chisels, one antler point; animal
          remains - bear, beaver, buffalo, deer, elk, hawk, raccoon, weasel; plant
          remains - over 100 pumpkin seeds, wild plant seeds; a radiocarbon date
          of A.D. 1680+-75
    Ref: Fitting, 1975, p.179,180,245

Site Name: None                                              
Location: in Riverton Township, Sec. 20, Mason Co.
Feature: a circular enclosure over 150' across, 6' high
Ref: Hinsdale, 1931, p.28

Site Name: None                                             
Location: near Bass Lake
Features: small mounds and burial grounds
Ref: Hinsdale, 1931, p.28

Site Name: None                                              
Location: at south end of Pere Marquette Lake
Features: mounds and village
Ref: Anderson, 1933, p.20
       Hinsdale, 1931, p.28
       Page, 1882, p.8,62

    Anderson, R.F., 1933, Historic Not-A-Pe-Ka-Gon.
    Butterfield, 1979, The Jahr Site. Michigan Archaeologist, v.25, no.3-4
    Chrysler, D., 1975, The Story of Grand River.
    Clark, H., Robinson Township 1856-1956.
    Clarke, W.S., 1974, Invest. of the Yaggie and Kierking Sites, Muskegon Co., Mi., Manuscr.
       on file at Mich. Hist. Div.
    Cleland, C.E., 1966, The Prehistoric Animal Ecology and Ethnozoology of the 
       Upper Great Lakes Region., Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology,
       University of Michigan, no.29
    Cleland, E.C., Clute, R., 1969, A Late Woodland Burial from Muir, Ionia Co., Mich.,
       Mich. Arch., v.15, no.3, p.78-85
    Crane, H.R., Griffin, J.B., 1958, University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates 3.,
       Science, v.128, no.332, p.1117-23
    Crane, H.R., Griffin, J.B., 1959, University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates 4.,
       American Journal of Science, Radiocarbon Supplement, v.1, p.173-198
    Crane, H.R., Griffin, J.B., 1965, University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates 10.,
       Radiocarbon, v.7, pp.123-152
    Fitting, J.E., 1968, The Spring Creek Site, 20MU3, Muskegon County, Michigan.
       Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, Univ. of Mich., no.32, p.1-75
    Fitting, J.E., 1975, The Archaeology of Michigan.
    Flanders, R.E., 1968, The Spoonville Mound Salvage., Coffinberry News Bulletin,
       v.15, no.1, pp.3-7
    Grand Rapids Museum
    Grand Rapids Public Museum, 1977, Beads: Their Use by Upper Great Lakes Indians.
    Hinsdale, W.B., 1925 (1983 reprint), Primitive Man in Michigan. Michigan Handbook 
       Series, No.1
    Hinsdale, W.B., 1930, The First People of Michigan.
    Hinsdale, W.B., 1931, Archaeological Atlas of Michigan.
    Illustrated Historical Atlas of Ottawa and Kent Counties.
    Keslin, R.O., 1964, Archaeological Implications on the Role of Salt as an Element of 
       Cultural Diffusion. Missouri Archaeologist, v.26, p.23
    Kyes, A.P., 1974, The Romance of Muskegon.
    Kyvig, 1983, Proud Peninsula. 
    Lillie, L.C., Historic Grand Haven and Ottawa County.
    Mears, C.E., 1951, Charles Mears, Pioneer of the White Lake Area. 
    Michigan Alumnus, 1974, v.80, p.16-7,34
    Muskegon Chronicle
    Muskegon County Museum
    Norman, B.,1950, The Early History of White Lake and White Lake Indians.
    Ottawa County Sesquicentenial Commission Report, 1987, Reflections of Ottawa Co. 
    Page, H.R. and Co., 1882, History of Mason County.
    Page, H.R. and Co., 1882, History of Oceana County.
    Page, H.R. and Co., 1882, History of Ottawa County.
    Peske, G.R., 1962, Spoonville Mounds: A Brief Report., Coffinberry News Bulletin,
        v.9, no.10, p.119
    Prahl, E.J., 1966, The Muskegon R. Survey: 1965 and 1966., MA v.12, no.4, p.183-212
    Prahl, E.J., 1970, The Middle Woodland Period of the Lower Muskegon Valley and
        the Northern Hopewellian Frontier, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Mich., p.64
    Quimby, G.I., 1941, The Goodall Focus., Indiana Historical Society Prehistoric
        Research Series, v.2, no.2, pp.63-161
    Quimby, G.I., 1941, Hopewellian Pottery Types in Mich. Papers of the Mich. Acad., 
        v.26, p.489-95
    Quimby, G.I., 1943, The Ceramic Sequence w/in the Goodall Focus. Papers of the
        Michigan Academy of Arts and Science, v.28, p.543-48
    Quimby, G.I., 1960, Indian Life in the Upper Great Lakes. University of Chicago Press
    Quimby, G.I., 1964, The Stony Lake Mounds, Oceana Co., Mi., Mich.Arch., v.10, no.1, p.11-16
    Quimby, G.I., 1965, An Indian Earthwork in Muskegon County, Michigan. Michigan
        Archaeologist, v.11, no.3-4, p.165-9
    Shetrone, H.C., 1964, The Mound Builders.
    Sodders, B., 1990, Michigan's Prehistory Mysteries.
    Yakes, D.J., 1979
    Yakes, D.J., 1985, Muskegon First Hand.

LINKS Muskegon River Research