A listing of prehistoric references at 43N Latitude and 85W Longitude presented from southeast corner to northwest corner
MAP


Kent Co.
    Grand Rapids - at Grand Rapids on Grand River just above the rapids - Ottawa village
       Ref. - 4
Ottawa Co.
    Grand River - along the banks of Grand River - mounds
       Ref. - 1
    Tallmadge  - in Tallmadge Township - 3 mounds
       Ref. - 2
    Crockery Lake - on Crockery Lake - 2 villages
       Ref. - 2

Montcalm Co.
    Home Township - caskets, tablets, etc., with cuneiform and hieroglyphic writing
           from mounds
       Ref. - 9
    Cato Township - an acre or more of little mounds, perhaps 3 feet apart, 1 1/2 feet
           in diameter, and 5 or 6 inches high; mounds - 8' to 10' in diameter and 3' to 5'
           high; a number of pits several feet deep
       Ref. - 10
    
Muskegon Co.
    Half Moon - at Half Moon Lake in Casnovia Township - group of mounds
       Ref. - 2,3

Newaygo Co.
    Bridgeton Twsp - mound
       Ref. - 11
    Croton Twsp - 5 mounds, one over 3' high, two about 35' across, a child and a
           sub-adult, a dog burial, a cremation with human, deer, and turtle bone,
           an intrusive burial, a large copper spearpoint, stemmed points, scrapers, a
           deer long bone scraper tool, polished bone fragment, 2 deer bone awls, a rolled 
           copper bead, pottery, projectile points, bifaces, copper needles, bone points, 
           2 sandstone grinding stones or abraders, 2 deer cannon bone tools, a large
           quartzite chip, 2 small copper pins - one hafted in bone, a beaver incisor, a
           chipped stone drill, hearths, scrapers, a piece of pyrite or marcasite, a 
           groundstone celt, a gorget, beveled antler drifts, red ochre, RC date of 540 B.C. on
           a ground level hearth
         Croton Bluff mound group, 5 mounds including Croton Dam A,B,C and Carrigan A,B,
           at junction between Muskegon River and Little Muskegon River
         Croton Dam A - about 35' diameter, without central burial pit, with a cache of
             (stemmed base points, ovates, animal bone, burnt bone, burnt charcoal)
         Croton Dam B mound (20NE112) - section 8, stemmed point base, with human
             cremations, red ochre
         Croton Dam C mound - with human cremations, red ochre, a rolled copper bead
         Carrigan A (intrusive) - main burial radiocarbon dated to 1270+-120 BP (M-1759),
             with 2 burials at center of mound - lower a sub-adult about 4' above the base
             with a celt, gorget, antler drift, copper needles, bone points, a piece of pyrite
             or marcasite, stemmed point, cornernotched points; upper - a child about 5' 
             above the base; dog burial about 4' away and at same level as the child; small
             thin-walled, smoothed, cordmarked, and grit tempered shards throughout fill;
             peripheral hearths
         Carrigan B mound - about 150' west of Carrigan A, radiocarbon dated to 590 B.C.
            +-150 on burnt charcoal from top of pit, about 35' diameter, over 3' high, cremation
            in situ of multiple dessicated bodies in large central pit beneath mound
       Ref. - 5,6,7,8,11,12,14
    Newaygo-Croton area - with three fluted points found on the high outwash
           plain bordering Muskegon River to north, also with Late Archaic birdstones
           and broadstemmed points in local collections
       Ref. - 6
    Brooks Twsp  
         village - pottery, projectile points, blades, scrapers, RC date of 310 B.C. +-140
            (M-1982)
         midden - bones of beaver, otter, bear, turtle, wild turkey, wild goose, wolf, rabbit,
            fish, elk, wild cat, porcupine, clam
         heavy concentration of mound groups
         Sections 22 and 23 with 25 mounds
         mounds - blades, marine shell beads, an antler point, beaver teeth, turtle carapaces,
            red ochre, copper celts - one showing fabric weave, copper axes, bone awls, 
            arrows, 2 pieces of hematite ore, charcoal, a stone celt, conch shells, 4 effigy
            bear canines with drilled holes, single holed rectangular gorgets, copper
            needles, a wedge shaped bone tool, copper beads, an antler bone tool, platform
            pipes, pottery
         earthwork - in Brooks Twsp
         Woodland musk ox - in Brooks Twsp
         Jancarich site (20NE113) - on Muskegon River flats south of Jancarich residence
             toward river bank, pottery shards, chippage, corner notched points, Hopewell-
             like rimshards, correlation of high phosphorus content with increase in 
             cultural material, site about 200' long, smoothed body shards, Havana style
             pottery, post molds, remains of clams, fish, deer, and small mammals, near
             Brooks Lake
         Jancarich enclosure (20NE115) - on ridge surrounding Jancarich property, circular, 
             40' diameter, surrounded by moat, chippage, widened lip rimshard with
             cordmarked impressions running across lip
         Jancarich Ridge site (20NE141) - surface collection
         Parsons mound group - in Newaygo Co., with Hopewell-like pottery, corner-
             notched point, without cap construction
         Palmetier mound group - in Newaygo Co., without cap construction
         Brooks mound group - with probable Hopewell artifacts, inner caps, corner notched
              points, pottery vessels, includes 3 smaller mounds north of larger mound A,
              2 quadrilobate vessels
          Brooks mound A - over 3' high, with Hopewell-like pottery, corner-notched point,
              with probable intrusive Late Woodland pottery vessel associated with skeletal
              material, subfloor burial, large classic Hopewell pottery shard, platform pipe
              found near the surface of disturbed portion, with cap construction basket 
              loading evidence
         Brunett mounds - two small mounds on high bluff just east of Newaygo and north
              of the Muskegon River, with 2 cordmarked and decorated pottery vessels, point,
              scraper, one pot with deer scapula inside and other with a complete vertebral
              column inside
           Brunett Mound A - largest of two mounds, less than 20' diameter
         Mallon mound group - 25' or less diameters, with pottery vessel, intrusive burials,
              8 mounds total, at least 3 without subfloor burials
           Mallon mound A - with smoothed over cordmarked pottery vessel, only Mallon
              mound with a known subfloor burial
           Mallon mound B (20NE31) - 3 burials, pottery, charred logs
           Mallon mound E - with intrusive burials, cremations, no subfloor burial
           Mallon mound F (20NE31) - nearest of group to Brooks Lake, largest of group, 
              cornernotched points, a disarticulated 8 individual burial, a small quadrilobate
              pot with a constricted neck and crosshatched rim and impressed decorations
              on lobes, a set of copper pan pipes
           Mallon mound H - no sub-floor burial, possibly intrusive
         Schumaker mound group
           Schumaker mound - with secondary burials seven and one half feet beneath the
              base, upright charred logs surrounding burial, a biface blank
         near Newaygo to south of Muskegon River - small campsite
       Ref. - 5,6,8,11,13,14
    Garfield Twsp - points
       Ref. - 11
    Big Prairie Twsp - mounds, fluted point
         Hardy Dam mound - in Big Bend Park on Muskegon River, 8 miles north and 7 miles
             east of Brooks component, 25' diameter, with burial pit, skeletal material, a 
             small quadra-lobate pot with crosshatched rim and dentated zones on body 
             (Hopewell-like design), corner-notched point
       Ref. - 6,11
    Everett Twsp - pipe, earthwork
      Toft Lake site - north  of Muskegon River valley about the same distance as the 
          Crystal Lake site, with Havana style pottery
       Ref. - 6,13
    Sherman Twsp
      Crystal Lake site (20NE117) - village bordering former swamp area adjacent to
          the north end of Crystal Lake, north of Muskegon River valley, over an acre in
          extent, cordmark impressed widened flat lip rimshards, cornernotched points
        Ref. - 6
    Monroe Twsp - clovis-like point
       Ref. - 11
 
Mecosta Co.
    Porter mounds - near Paris, in Muskegon RIver valley
       Ref. - 6

Osceola Co.
    Osceola earthworks - on Muskegon River
    Chase earthwork
       Ref. - 6

 References
    1- Lillie, L.C., 1931, Historic Grand Haven and Ottawa County., p.85
    2- Hinsdale, W.B., 1931, Archaeological Atlas of Michigan, p.31,34
    3- Muskegon Chronicle, 4/19/35, p.24
    4- Chrysler, D., 1975, The Story of Grand River. p.5
    5- Fitting, J.E., 1975, The Archaeology of Michigan.
    6- Prahl, E.J., 1966, The Muskegon R. Survey: 1965 and 1966., Michigan Archaeologist,
           v.12, no.4, p.183-212
    7- Crane, H.R., Griffin, J.B., 1962, Univ. of Mich. RC Dates VII, Radiocarbon, v.4, p.183-204
    8- Crane, H.R., Griffin, J.B., 1963, U of M RC Dates VIII, Radiocarbon, v.5, p.228-53
    9- Drier, R.W., 1961, Prehistoric Copper Mining in the L. Superior Region
   10- Hinsdale, W.B., 1930, The First People of Michigan. p.142-3
   11- Prahl, E.J., 1970, The Middle Woodland Period of the Lower Muskegon Valley and
           the Northern Hopewellian Frontier, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Mich., p.64
   12- Frantz, C., 1967, Excavation of Croton Dam Md. B (20NE112), Mich. Arch., v.13, no.1, 
           p.11-12
   13- Hinsdale, W.B., 1930, Reports of Arch. Fieldwork in the summer of 1928 in 
           Montmorency, Newaygo, and Lake Co.'s Mich., Papers of the Mich. Acad. of Sci., 
           Arts, and Letters, v.12, p.127-35
   14- Losey, T.C., 1968, Excavation of the Mallon Md. B (20NE31), MA, v.14, no.s 3-4,  
           p.135-42


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