JUSTICE is the moral virtue that consists in the constant and firm will to give their due to God and neighbor. Justice toward God is called the "virtue of religion." Justice toward men disposes one to respect the rights of each and to establish in human relationships the harmony that promotes equity with regard to persons and to the common good.

There are two standards for determining this: an arithmetical and a geometric standard. The arithmetical standard requires that the debtor give exactly the same amount to the other, while the geometrical standard requires only a proportional compensation for what was received. Commutative justice regulates actions between individuals.