DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION
- (DEI VERBUM)
SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD
TOGETHER WITH THE FATHERS OF THE SACRED COUNCIL
FOR EVERLASTING MEMORY
DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION
1. Hearing the Word of God with reverence and proclaiming it with
faith, the sacred Synod takes its direction from these words of St John:
"We announce to you the eternal life which dwelt with the Father and was
made visible to us. What we have seen and heard we announce to you, so
that you may have fellowship with us and our common fellowship be with
the Father and His Son Jesus Christ" (1 John 1:2-3). Therefore,
following in the footsteps of the Council of Trent and of the First
Vatican Council, this present Council wishes to set forth authentic
doctrine on divine revelation and how it is handed on, so that by
hearing the message of salvation the whole world may believe, by
believing it may hope, and by hoping it may love .
CHAPTER I - REVELATION ITSELF
2. In His goodness and wisdom God chose to reveal Himself and to make
known to us the hidden purpose of His will (see Eph. 1:9) by which
through Christ, the Word made flesh, man might in the Holy Spirit have
access to the Father and come to share in the divine nature (see Eph.
2:18; 2 Peter 1:4). Through this revelation, therefore, the invisible
God (see Col. 1:15; 1 Tim. 1:17) out of the abundance of His love speaks
to men as friends (see Ex. 33:11; John 15:14-15) and lives among them
(see Bar. 3:38), so that He may invite and take them into fellowship
with Himself. This plan of revelation is realized by deeds and words
having an inner unity: the deeds wrought by God in the history of
salvation manifest and confirm the teaching and realities signified by
the words, while the words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery
contained in them. By this revelation then, the deepest truth about God
and the salvation of man shines out for our sake in Christ, who is both
the mediator and the fullness of all revelation .
3. God, who through the Word creates all things (see John 1:3) and
keeps them in existence, gives men an enduring witness to Himself in
created realities (see Rom. 1:19-20). Planning to make known the way of
heavenly salvation, He went further and from the start manifested
Himself to our first parents. Then after their fall His promise of
redemption aroused in them the hope of being saved (see Gen. 3:15) and
from that time on He ceaselessly kept the human race in His care, to
give eternal life to those who perseveringly do good in search of
salvation (see Rom. 2:6-7). Then, at the time He had appointed He called
Abraham in order make of him a great nation (see Gen. 12:2). Through
the patriarchs, and after them through Moses and the prophets, He taught
this people to acknowledge Himself the one living and true God,
provident father and just judge, and to wait for the Saviour promised by
Him, and in this manner prepared the way for the Gospel down through the
4. Then, after speaking in many and varied ways through the prophets,
"now at last in these days God has spoken to us in His Son" (Heb. 1:1-
2). For He sent His Son, the eternal Word, who enlightens all men, so
that He might dwell among men and tell them of the innermost being of
God (see John 1:1-18). Jesus Christ, therefore, the Word made flesh,
was sent as "a man to men" . He "speaks the words of God" (John
3:34), and completes the work of salvation which His Father gave to Him
to do (see John 5:36, 17:4). To see Jesus is to see His Father (see John
14:9). For this reason Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it
through his whole work of making Himself present and manifesting
Himself: through His words and deeds, His signs and wonders, but
especially through His death and glorious resurrection from the dead and
final sending of the Spirit of truth. Moreover He confirmed with divine
testimony what revelation proclaimed, that God is with us to free us
from the darkness of sin and death, and to raise us up to life eternal.
The Christian dispensation, therefore, as the new and definitive
covenant, will never pass away and we now await no further new public
revelation before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ
(see 1 Tim. 6:14 and Tit. 2:13).
5. "The obedience of faith" (Rom. 16:26; see Rom. 1:5; 2 Cor. 10:5-6)
"is to be given to God who reveals, an obedience by which man commits
his whole self freely to God, offering the full submission of intellect
and will to God who reveals" , and freely assenting to the truth
revealed by Him. TO make this act of faith, the grace of God and the
interior help of the Holy Spirit must precede and assist, moving the
heart and turning it to God, opening the eyes of the mind and giving
"joy and ease to everyone in assenting to the truth and believing it"
. To bring about an ever deeper understanding of revelation the same
Holy Spirit constantly brings faith to completion by His gifts.
6. Through divine revelation, God chose to show forth and communicate
Himself and the eternal decisions of His will regarding the salvation of
men. That is to say, He chose to share with them those divine treasures
which totally transcend the understanding of the human mind .
As a sacred synod has affirmed, "God, the beginning and end of all
things, can be known with certainty from created reality by the light of
human reason" (See Rom. 1:20); but it teaches that it is through His
revelation "that those religious truths which are by their nature
accessible to human reason can be known by all men with ease, with solid
certitude and with no trace of error, even in this present state of the
human race" .
CHAPTER II - HANDING ON DIVINE REVELATION
7. In His gracious goodness, God has seen to it that what He had
revealed for the salvation of all nations would abide perpetually in its
full integrity and be handed on to all generations. Therefore Christ the
Lord in whom the full revelation of the supreme God is brought to
completion (see 2 Cor. 1:30; 3:15; 4:6), commissioned the Apostles to
preach to all men that Gospel which is the source of all saving truth
and moral teaching , and to impart to them heavenly gifts. This
Gospel had been promised in former times through the prophets, and
Christ Himself had fulfilled it and promulgated it with His lips. This
commission was faithfully fulfilled by the Apostles who, by their oral
preaching, by example, and by observances handed on what they had
received from the lips of Christ, from living with Him, and from what He
did, or what they had learned through the prompting of the Holy Spirit.
The commission was fulfilled, too, by those Apostles and apostolic men
who under the inspiration of the same Holy Spirit committed the message
of salvation to writing .
But in order to keep the Gospel forever whole and alive within the
Church, the Apostles left bishops as their successors, "handing over" to
them "the authority to teach in their own place" . This sacred
tradition, therefore, and Sacred Scripture of both the Old and New
Testaments are like a mirror in which the pilgrim Church on earth looks
at God, from whom she has received everything, until she is brought
finally to see Him as He is, face to face (see 1 John 3:2).
8. And so the apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a special way
in the inspired books, was to be preserved by an unending succession of
preachers until the end of time. Therefore the Apostles, handing on
what they themselves had received, warn the faithful to hold fast to the
traditions which they have learned either by word of mouth or by letter
(see 2 Thess. 2:15), and to fight in defense of the faith handed on once
and for all (see Jud. 3) . Now what was handed on by the Apostles
includes everything which contributes toward the holiness of life and
increase in faith of the People of God; and hands on to all generations
all that she herself is, all that she believes.
This tradition which comes from the Apostles develops in the Church
with the help of the Holy Spirit . For there is a growth in the
understanding of the realities and the words which have been made by
believers, who treasure these things in their hearts (see Luke 2:19,
51), through a penetrating understanding of the spiritual realities
which they experience, and through the preaching of those who have
received through episcopal succession the sure gift of truth. For as
the centuries succeed one another, the Church constantly moves forward
toward the fullness of divine truth until the words of God reach their
complete fulfilment in her.
The words of the holy Fathers witness to the presence of this living
tradition, whose wealth is poured into the practice and life of the
believing and praying Church. Through the same tradition the Church's
full canon of the sacred books is known, and the sacred writings
themselves are more profoundly understood and unceasingly made active in
her; and thus God, who spoke of old, uninterruptedly converses with the
bride of His beloved Son; and the Holy Spirit, through whom the living
voice of the Gospel resounds in the Church, and through her, in the
world, leads unto all truth those who believe and makes the Word of
Christ dwell abundantly in them (see Col. 3:16).
9. Hence there exists a close connection and communication between
sacred tradition and sacred Scripture. For both of them, flowing from
the same divine wellspring, in a certain way merge into a unity and tend
toward the same end. For sacred Scripture is the Word of God inasmuch
as it is consigned to writing under the inspiration of the divine
Spirit, while sacred tradition takes the Word of God entrusted by Christ
the Lord and the Holy Spirit to the Apostles, and hands it on to their
successors in its full purity, so that led by the light of the Spirit of
truth, they may in proclaiming it preserve this Word of God faithfully,
explain it, and make it more widely known. Consequently it is not from
sacred Scripture alone that the Church draws her certainty about
everything which has been revealed. Therefore both sacred tradition and
sacred Scripture are to be accepted and venerated with the same sense of
loyalty and reverence .
10. Sacred tradition and sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit of
the Word of God, committed to the Church. Holding fast to this deposit
the entire holy people united with their shepherds remain always
steadfast in the teaching of the Apostles, in the common life, in the
breaking of the bread and in prayers (see Acts 8:42, Greek text), so
that holding to, practicing and professing the heritage of the faith, it
becomes on the part of the bishops and faithful a single common effort
But the task of authentically interpreting the Word of God, whether
written or handed on , has been entrusted exclusively to the living
teaching office of the Church , whose authority is exercised in the
name of Jesus Christ. This teaching office is not above the Word of
God, but serves it, teaching only what has been handed on, listening to
it devoutly, guarding it scrupulously and explaining it faithfully in
accord with a divine commission and with the help of the Holy Spirit; it
draws from this one deposit of faith everything which it presents for
belief as divinely revealed.
It is clear, therefore, that sacred tradition, sacred Scripture and
the teaching authority of the Church, in accord with God's most wise
design, are so linked and joined together that one cannot stand without
the others, and that all together and each in its own way under the
action of the one Holy Spirit contribute effectively to the salvation of
CHAPTER III - SACRED SCRIPTURE,
ITS INSPIRATION AND DIVINE INTERPRETATION
11. Those divinely revealed realities which are contained and
presented in sacred Scripture have been committed to writing under the
inspiration of the Holy Spirit. For holy mother Church, relying on the
belief of the Apostles (see John 20:31; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:19-21;
3:15-16), holds that the books of both the Old and New Testaments in
their entirety, with all their parts, are sacred and canonical because
written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God as their
author and have been handed on such to the Church herself . In
composing the sacred books, God chose men and while employed by Him 
they made use of their powers and abilities, so that with Him acting in
them and through them , they, as true authors, consigned to writing
everything and only those things which He wanted .
Therefore since everything asserted by the inspired authors or sacred
writers must be held to be asserted by the Holy Spirit, it follows that
the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching solidly,
faithfully and without error that truth which God wanted put into the
sacred writings  for the sake of our salvation. Therefore "all
Scripture is divinely inspired and has its use for teaching the truth
and refuting error, for reformation of manners and discipline in right
living, so that the man who belongs to God may be efficient and equipped
for good work of every kind" (2 Tim. 3:16-17, Greek text).
12. However, since God speaks in sacred Scripture through men in human
fashion , the interpreter of sacred Scripture, in order to see
clearly what God wanted to communicate to us, should carefully
investigate what meaning the sacred writers really intended, and what
God wanted to manifest by means of their words.
To search out the intention of the sacred writers, attention should be
given, among other things, to "literary norms." For truth is set forth
and expressed differently in texts which are variously historical,
prophetic, poetic, or of other forms of discourse. The interpreter must
investigate what meaning the sacred writer intended to express and
actually expressed in particular circumstances by using contemporary
literary forms in accordance with the situation of his own time and
culture . For the correct understanding of what the sacred author
wanted to assert, due attention must be paid to the customary and
characteristic styles of feeling, speaking and narrating which prevailed
at the time of the sacred writer, and to the patterns men normally
employed at the period in their everyday dealings with one another .
But, since holy Scripture must be read and interpreted in the same
spirit in which it was written , no less serious attention must be
given to the content and unity of the whole Scripture if the meaning of
the sacred texts is to be correctly worked out. The living tradition of
the whole Church must be taken into account along with the harmony which
exists between elements of the faith. It is the task of exegetes to work
according to these rules toward a better understanding and explanation
of the meaning of sacred Scripture, so that through preparatory study
the judgement of the Church may mature. For all of what has been said
about the way of interpreting Scripture is subject finally to the
judgement of the Church, which carries out the divine commission and
ministry of guarding and interpreting the Word of God .
13. In sacred Scripture, therefore, while the truth and holiness of
God always remains intact, the marvellous "condescension" of eternal
wisdom is clearly shown, "that we may learn the gentle kindness of God,
which words cannot express, and how far He has gone in adopting His
language with thoughtful concern for our weak human nature" . For
the words of God, expressed in human language, have been made like human
discourse, just as the word of the eternal Father, when He took Himself
the flesh of human weakness, was in every way made like men.
CHAPTER IV - THE OLD TESTAMENT
14. In carefully planning and preparing the salvation of the whole
human race the God of infinite love, by a special dispensation, chose
for Himself a people to whom He would entrust His promises. First He
entered into a covenant with Abraham (see Gen. 15:18) and, through
Moses, with the people of Israel (see Ex. 24:8). To this people which
He had acquired for Himself, He so manifested Himself through words and
deeds as the one true and living God that Israel came to know by
experience the ways of God with men. Then, too, when God Himself spoke
to them through the mouth of the prophets, Israel daily gained a deeper
and clearer understanding of His ways and made them more widely known
among the nations (see Ps. 21:29; 95:1-3; Is. 2:1-4; Jer. 3:17). The
plan of salvation foretold by the sacred authors, recounted and
explained by them, is found as the true Word of God in the books of the
Old Testament: these books, therefore, written under divine inspiration,
so that by steadfastness and the encouragement of the Scriptures we
might have hope" (Rom. 15:4).
15. The principal purpose to which the plan of the old covenant was
directed was to prepare for the coming of Christ, the redeemer of all
and of the messianic kingdom, to announce this coming by prophecy (see
Luke 24:44, John 5:39; 1 Peter 1:10), and to indicate its meaning
through various types (see 1 Cor. 10:11). Now the books of the Old
Testament, in accordance with the state of mankind before the time of
salvation established by Christ, reveal to all men the knowledge of God
and of man and the ways in which God, just and merciful, deals with men.
These books, though they also contain some things which are incomplete
and temporary, nevertheless show us true divine pedagogy . These
same books, then, give expression to a lively sense of God, contain a
store of sublime teachings about God, sound wisdom about human life, and
a wonderful treasury of prayers, and in them the mystery of our
salvation is present in a hidden way. Christians should receive them
16. God, the inspirer and author of both Testaments, wisely arranged
that the New Testament be hidden in the Old and that the Old be made
manifest in the New . For, though Christ established the new
covenant with His blood (see Luke 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25), still the books
of the Old Testament with all their parts, caught up into the meaning of
the proclamation of the Gospel , acquire and show forth their full
meaning in the New Testament (see Matt. 5:17; Luke 24:27; Rom. 16:25-26;
2 Cor. 3:14-16) and in turn shed light on it and explain it.
CHAPTER V - THE NEW TESTAMENT
17. Word of God, which is the power of God for the salvation of all
who believe (see Rom. 1:16), is set forth and shows its power in a most
excellent way in the writings of the New Testament. For when the
fullness of time arrived (see Gal. 4:4), the Word was made flesh and
dwelt among us in His fullness of graces and truth (see John 1:14).
Christ established the Kingdom of God on earth, manifested His Father
and Himself by deeds and words, and completed His work by His death,
resurrection and glorious Ascension and by the sending of the Holy
Spirit. Having been lifted up from the earth, He draws all men to
Himself (see John 12:32, Greek text), He who alone has the words of
eternal life (see John 6:68). This mystery had not been manifested to
other generations as it was now revealed to His holy Apostles and
prophets in the Holy Spirit (see Eph. 3:4-6, Greek text), so that they
might preach the Gospel, stir up faith in Jesus, Christ and Lord, and
gather together the Church. Now the writings of the New Testament stand
as a perpetual and divine witness to these realities.
18. It is common knowledge that among all the Scriptures, even those
of the New Testament, the Gospels have a special preeminence, and
rightly so, for they are the principal witness for the life and teaching
of the Incarnate Word, our Saviour.
The Church has always and everywhere held and continues to hold that
the four Gospels are of apostolic origin. For what the Apostles
preached in fulfilment of the commission of Christ, afterwards they
themselves and apostolic men, under the inspiration of the divine
Spirit, handed on to us in writing: the foundation of the faith, namely,
the fourfold Gospel, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John .
19. Holy Mother Church has firmly and with absolute constancy held,
and continues to hold, that the four Gospels just named, whose
historical character the Church unhesitatingly asserts, faithfully hand
on what Jesus Christ, while living among men, really did and taught for
their eternal salvation until the day He was taken up into heaven (see
Acts 1:1-2). Indeed, after the Ascension of the Lord the Apostles
handed on to their hearers what He had said and done. This they did
with that clearer understanding which they enjoyed  after they had
been instructed by the glorious events of Christ's life and taught by
the light of the Spirit of truth . The sacred authors wrote four
Gospels, selecting some things from the many which had bee handed on by
word of mouth or in writing, reducing some of them to a synthesis,
explaining some things in view of the situation of their churches, and
preserving the form of proclamation but always in such fashion that they
told us the honest truth about Jesus . For their intention in
writing was that either from their own memory and recollections, or from
the witness of those who "themselves from the beginning were
eye-witnesses and ministers of the Word" we might know "the truth"
concerning those matters about which we have been instructed (see Luke
20. Besides the four Gospels, the canon of the New Testament also
contains the epistles of St. Paul and other apostolic writings, composed
under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, by which according to the wise
plan of God, those matters which concern Christ the Lord are confirmed,
His true teaching is more and more preached, the story is told of the
beginnings of the Church and its marvellous growth, and its glorious
fulfilment is foretold.
For the Lord Jesus was with His Apostles as He had promised (see Matt.
28:2)) and sent them the advocate Spirit who would lead them into the
fullness of truth (see John 16:13).
CHAPTER VI -
SACRED SCRIPTURE IN THE LIFE OF THE CHURCH
21. The Church has always venerated the Scriptures just as she
venerates the body of the Lord, since, especially in sacred liturgy, she
unceasingly receives and offers to the faithful the bread of life from
the table both of God's Word and of Christ's Body. She has always
maintained them, and continues to do so, together with sacred tradition,
as the supreme rule of faith, since, as inspired by God and committed
once and for all to writing, they impart the Word of God Himself without
change, and make the voice of the Holy Spirit resound in the words of
the prophets and Apostles. Therefore, like the Christian religion
itself, all the preaching of the Church must be nourished and regulated
by sacred Scripture. For in the sacred books, the Father who is in
heaven meets His children with great love and speaks with them; and the
force and power in the word of God is so great that it stands as the
support and energy of the Church, the strength of faith for her sons,
the food of the soul, the pure and everlasting source of spiritual life.
Consequently these words are perfectly applicable to sacred Scripture:
"For the word of God is living and active" (Heb. 4:12) and "it has power
to build you up and give you your heritage among all those who are
sanctified" (Acts 20:32; see 1 Thess. 2:13).
22. Easy access to sacred Scripture should be provided for all the
Christian faithful. That is why the Church from the very beginning
accepted as her own that very ancient Greek translation of the Old
Testament which is called the Septuagint; and she has always given a
place of honour to other Eastern translations and Latin ones, especially
the Latin translation known as the Vulgate. But since the Word of God
should be accessible at all times, the Church by her authority and with
maternal concern sees to it that suitable and correct translations are
made into different languages, especially from the original texts of the
sacred books. And should the opportunity arise and the Church
authorities approve, if these translations are produced in cooperation
with the separated brethren as well, all Christians will be able to use
23. The bride of the Incarnate Word, the Church taught by the Holy
Spirit, is concerned to move ahead toward a deeper understanding of the
sacred Scriptures so that she may increasingly feed her sons with the
divine words. Therefore, she also encourages the study of the holy
Fathers of both East and West and of the sacred liturgies. Catholic
exegetes then and other students of sacred theology, working diligently
together and using appropriate means, should devote their energies,
under the watchful care of the sacred teaching office of the Church, to
an exploration and exposition of the divine writings. This should be so
done that as many ministers of the divine word as possible will be able
effectively to provide nourishment of the Scriptures for the People of
God, to enlighten their minds , strengthen their wills and set men's
hearts on fire with the love of God . The sacred Synod encourages
the sons of the Church and Biblical scholars to continue energetically,
following the mind of the Church, with the work they have so well begun,
with a constant renewal of vigour .
24. Sacred theology rests on the written Word of God, together with
sacred tradition, as its primary and perpetual foundation. By
scrutinizing in the light of faith all truth stored up in the mystery of
Christ, theology is most powerfully strengthened and constantly
rejuvenated by that Word. For the sacred Scriptures contain the Word of
God and since they are inspired really are the Word of God; and so the
study of the sacred page is, as it were, the soul of sacred theology
. By the same word of Scripture the ministry of the Word also, that
is, pastoral preaching, catechetics and all Christian instruction, in
which the liturgical homily must hold the foremost place, is nourished
in a healthy way and flourishes in a holy way.
25. Therefore, all the clergy must hold fast to the sacred Scriptures
through diligent sacred reading and careful study, especially the
priests of Christ and others, such as deacons and catechists whoa re
legitimately active in the ministry of the Word. This is to be done so
that none of them will become "an empty preacher of the word of God
outwardly, who is not a listener to it inwardly"  since they must
share the abundant wealth of the divine Word with the faithful committed
to them, especially in the sacred liturgy. The sacred Synod also
earnestly and especially urges all the Christian faithful, especially
Religious, to learn by frequent reading of the divine Scriptures the
"excellent knowledge of Jesus Christ" (Phil. 3:8). "For ignorance of the
Scriptures is ignorance of Christ" . Therefore, they should gladly
put themselves in touch with the sacred text itself, whether it be
through the liturgy, rich in the divine Word or through devotional
reading, or through instructions suitable for the purpose and other aids
which, in our time with approval and active support of the shepherds of
the Church, are commendably spread everywhere. And let them remember
that prayer should accompany the reading of sacred Scripture, so that
God and man may talk together; for "we speak to Him when we pray; we
hear Him when we read the divine saying" .
It devolves on sacred bishops "who have the apostolic teaching"  to
give the faithful entrusted to them suitable instruction in the right
use of the divine books, especially the New Testament and above all the
Gospels. This can be done through translations of the sacred texts,
which are to be provided with the necessary and really adequate
explanations so that the children of the Church may safely and
profitably become conversant with the sacred Scriptures and be
penetrated with their spirit.
Furthermore, editions of the sacred Scriptures, provided with suitable
footnotes, should be prepared also for the sue of non- Christians and
adapted to their situation. Both pastors of souls and Christians
generally should see to the wide distribution of these in one way or
26. In this way, therefore, through the reading and study of the
sacred books "the word of God may spread rapidly and be glorified" (2
Thess. 3;1) and the treasure of revelation, entrusted to the Church, may
more and more fill the hearts of men. Just as the life of the Church is
strengthened through more frequent celebration of the Eucharistic
mystery, similarly we may hope for a new stimulus for the life of the
Spirit from a growing reverence for the word of God, which "lasts
forever" (Is. 40:8; see 1 Peter 1:23-25).
The entire text and all the individual elements which have been set
forth in this Constitution have pleased the Fathers. And by the
Apostolic power conferred on us by Christ, we, together with the
Venerable Fathers, in the Holy Spirit, approve, decree and enact them;
and we order that what has been thus enacted in Council be promulgated,
to the glory of God.
Rome, at St. Peter's 18 November, 1965.
I, PAUL, Bishop of the Catholic Church
There follow the signatures of the Fathers.
 Cf. St. Augustine, DE CATECHIZANDIS RUDIBUS, C.IV, 8: PL. 40,316.
 Cf. Mt. 11:27; Jn. 1:14 and 17; 14:6; 17:1-3; 2 Cor. 3:16 and 4:6;
 EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS, c. VII, 4: Funk, APOSTOLIC FATHERS, I, p. 403.
 First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC FAITH,
Chap. 3, "On Faith:" Denzinger 1789 (3008).
 Second Council of Orange, Canon 7: Denzinger 180 (377); First
Vatican Council, loc. cit.: Denzinger 1791 (3010).
 First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC FAITH,
Chap. 2, "On Revelation:" Denzinger 1786 (3005).
 Ibid: Denzinger 1785 and 1786 (3004 and 3005).
 Cf. Matt. 28:19-20, and Mark 16:15; Council of Trent, session IV,
DECREE ON SCRIPTURAL SANONS: Denzinger 783 (1501).
 Cf. Council of Trent, loc. cit.; First Vatican Council, session III,
DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC FAITH, Chap. 2, "On Revelation:"
Denzinger 1787 (3006).
 St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS III, 3, 1: PG 7, 848; Harvey, 2, p.
 Cf. Second Council of Nicea: Denzinger 303 (602); Fourch Council of
Constance, session X, Canon 1: Denzinger 336 (650-652).
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chap. 4, "On Faith and Reason:" Denzinger 1800 (3020).
 Cf. Council of Trent, session IV, loc. cit.: Denzinger 783 (1501).
 Cf. Pius XII, apostolic constitution, MUNIFICENTISSIMUS DEUS, Nov.
1, 1950: AAS 42 (1950) p. 756; Collected Writings of St. Cyprian, Letter
66, 8: Hartel, III B, p. 733: "The Church [is] people united with the
priest and the pastor together with his flock."
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chap. 3 "On Faith:" Denzinger 1792 (3011).
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter HUMANI GENERIS, Aug. 12, 1950: AAS
42 (1950) pp. 568-569: Denzinger 2314 (3886).
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chap. 3 "On Revelation:" Denzinger 1787 (3006); Biblical
Commission, DECREE of June 18, 1915: Denzinger 2180 (3629): EB 420; Holy
Office, EPISTLE of Dec. 22, 1923: EB 499.
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU, Sept. 30,
1943: AAS 35 (1943) p. 314; Enchiridion Biblic. (EB) 556.
 "In" and "for" man: cf. Heb 1:1 and 4:7; ("in"): 2 Sm. 23:2; Mt.
1:22 and various places; ("for"): First Vatican Council, SCHEMA ON
CATHOLIC DOCTRINE, note 9: Coll. Lac. VII, 522.
 Leo XII, Encyclical PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS, Nov. 18, 1893: Denzinger
1952 (3293): EB 125.
 Cf. St. Augustine, GEN. AD LITT. 2, 9, 20: PL 34, 270-271; Epistle
82,3: PL 33, 277: CSEL 34,2, p. 354; St. Thomas, "On Truth", Q.12, A.2,
C; Council of Trent, session IV, SCRIPTURAL CANONS: Denzinger 783
(1501); Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS: EB 121, 124;
Pius XII, Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB 539.
 St. Augustine, CITY OF GOD, XVII,6,2: PL 41, 537: CSEL XL, 2, 228.
 St. Augustine, ON CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE III, 18, 26: PL 34, 75-76.
 Pius XII, Loc. cit.: Denzinger 2294 (3829-3830): EB 557-562.
 Cf. Benedict XV, Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS, Sept. 15,
1920: EB 469. St. Jerome, "In Galacians" 5, 19-20: PL 26, 417 A.
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chapter 2, "On Revelation;" Denzinger 1788 (3007).
 St. John Chrysostom IN GENESIS 3, 8 (Homily 17, 1): PG 53, 134;
"Attemperatio" [in English "Suitable adjustment"] in Greek
 Pius XI, Encyclical Epistle MIT BRENNENDER SORGE, March 14, 1937:
AAS 29 (1937) p. 51.
 St. Augustine, QUEST IN HEPT. 2, 73: PL 34, 623.
 St. Irenaeus AGAINST HERETICS III, 21, 3: PG 7, 950: (Same as 25, 1:
Harvey 2, p. 115). St Cyril of Jerusalem, CATECH. 4, 35: PG 33, 497.
Theodore of Mopsuestia, IN Soph. 1, 4-6: PG 66, 452D-453A.
 Cf. St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS, III, 11, 8: PG 7, 885; Sagnard
Edition, p. 194.
[Due to the necessities of translation, footnote 2 follows footnote 3 in
the text of Article 19]
 Cf. John 14:26; 16:13.
 John 2:22; 12:16; Cf. 14:26; 16:12-13; 7:39.
 Cf. instruction HOLY MOTHER CHURCH edited by Pontifical Consilium
for Promotion of Bible Studies: AAS 56 (1964) p. 715.
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB 551,
553, 567; Pontifical Biblical Commission, INSTRUCTION ON PROPER TEACHING
OF SACRED SCRIPTURE IN SEMINARIES AND RELIGIOUS COLLEGES, May 13, 1950:
AAS (1950) pp. 495-505.
 Cf. Pius XII, ibid: EB 569.
 Cf. Leo XII, Encyclical Letter PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS: EB 114;
Benedict XV, Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS: EB 483.
 St. Augustine, SERMONS, 179, 1: PL 38, 966.
 St. Jerome COMMENTARY ON ISAIAH, Prol: PL 24, 17; Cf. BENEDICT XV,
Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS: EB 475-480; Pius XII, Encyclical
Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB 544.
 St. Ambrose, ON THE DUTIES OF MINISTERS I< 20, 88: PL 16, 50.
 St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS IV, 32, 1: PG 7, 1071; (same as 49,
2) Harvey, 2, p. 255.